Zone of the water-conducting cracks
ZONE OF THE WATER-CONDUCTING CRACKS (EN: zone of water conducting cracks; DE: Wasserleiterzone; FR: zone des fissures jaillissantes; ES: zona de fracturas acuiferas; RU: водопроводящих трещин зона) is the disturbed massif of the rock, through the cracks of which the underground and superficial waters arrive into the mine workings.
They distinguish the natural zones of the water-conducting cracks, which are associated with the large tectonic disturbances and karst phenomena, and the artificial such zones, namely, with the displacement of the rocks above the goaf space, and with the deformation of the rocks of the soil, as the result of which, there are formed the cracks, which are causing the communication of the aquifers and superficial waters with the goaf space. The parameters of the development of the artificial zones of the water-conducting cracks depend on the excavated thickness of the useful minerals (while taking into account the repeated undermining of the massif), on the depth of the development of the deposition, and on the angle of the dip of this deposition, on the strength and deformation characteristics of the covering rocks, on their natural crackedness, on the sizes of the goaf space, on the method for the management of the roof.
During the determination of the safe conditions for the development of the deposits of the useful minerals under the water bodies, during the forecasting of the water inflows into the mine workings, and during the estimation of the negative influence of the mining works onto the surrounding aquatic environment, there are the major calculation parameters the height of the zone of the water-conducting cracks above the goaf space, and the hydrogeological indicators within the limits of this zone. The height of the zone of the water-conducting cracks is determined as the result of the observations over the pressures within the layers, which are undermined, and over the migration of the water into the mine workings of the underground mine; as the result of the comparison of the specific water absorptions within the rocks before and after their undermining; as the result of the determination of the consumption of the water within the boreholes within the undermined massifs; as the result of the hydrogeological generalization of the results from the analysis of the dynamics of the water inflow into the individual places of the underground mine.
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