Werner, Abraham Gottlob

(Figure) Werner, A.G.

WERNER, Abraham Gottlob (RU: Вернер, Абраам Готлоб) was the German geologist and mineralogist. Werner studied at the Freiberg Mining Academy (1771), and at the Leipzig University (1769-74). Within the Freiberg Mining Academy, Werner taught since the 1775 the mining craft and mineralogy. Werner was the Commission Mining Advisor (since the 1792), Werner was the member of the Supreme Council for Mining within the Freiberg city, and since the 1799, Werner was the Mining Advisor. Werner has brought the major contribution into the mineralogy; Werner is considered the founder of the scientific Freiberg Mining School, has the great merits within the field of the development of the practical mining craft, and within the geological studies within Saxony. Werner distinguished the geognosy, which is the descriptive science about the upper part of the Earth's crust, and the geology, which is the theoretical science about the Earth's globe as a whole, about its origin and deep structure. The geological observations of Werner were limited within Saxony, mainly within the surroundings of the Freiberg city, where he studied the rocks, ores, and minerals, while supposing, that the stratigraphic sequence of the layers of the rocks within the region, which has been studied by him, is common for the entire Earth's globe. Werner was the leader for the neptunism idea during his time, and he supposed, that all the rocks, including the erupted rocks and ore veins, have been deposited from the "primary ocean", the water of which, in terms of its composition, differed sharply from the modern sea water (see the "Neptunism" article). According to the age, he has identified the geological "formations" (from the bottom to the top), namely, the pristine formation, the transitional formation, the secondary formation, the alluvial formation, and the volcanic formation. Werner accepted the movements of the Earth's crust only in the form of its collapses into the underground voids.