WATER CONTROL of the mine workings (EN: hose-proof mining, water-proofness of mine workings; DE: Wasserschutz der Gruben; FR: protection des voies contre l'arrivee d'eau; ES: proteccion de los tajos contra las aguas; RU: водозащита) is the system of the activities for the prevention or limiting of the inflow of the superficial, underground, and mine waters into the mine workings (mainly into the extracting stopes), with the purpose of the ensuring of the economical and safe conditions for the conducting of the mining works.
The water control against the superficial waters includes: the interception of the waters of the slope runoff (on the way of the movement of these waters to the zones of the subsidence of the surface, and to the opencast mine workings) with the help of the superficial water control devices (of the upland water-diverting ditches and dams); the shielding of the channels of the watercourses within the limits of the underground mine (or of the open-pit mine) fields, using the methods of the cementation, claying, concreting, and others; the diversion of the water from the water bodies and watercourses beyond the limits of the underground mine (or of the open-pit mine) fields through the ditches, or the pumping-out of the water using the pumps; the plugging of the cracks of the subsidence on the surface of the ground (or within the underground mines), using the clayish and other material, or the leveling and compaction of the edges of the troughs of the subsidence; the pumping-out of the water-storm waters from the troughs of the subsidence, using the pumps, which are installed onto the pontoons; the usage of the systems for the development without the preservation of the pillars, with the stowing of the goaf space.
The protection of the mine workings against the underground waters is performed at the deposits with the complicated hydrogeological conditions with the help of the drainage or barrage devices (see the "Lowering of the water level", "Drainage", and "Barrage" articles), while at the deposits with the relatively simple hydrogeological conditions, the protection is performed using the modification of the technology of the mining works (the positioning of the extracting places near to the exhausted and drained areas; the placement of the priority extracting places on the path of the movement of the flow of the underground waters; the usage of the systems for the development with the stowing of the goaf space, and so on).
For the protection against the underground mine waters, there is ensured the prevention of the sudden breakthroughs of the water from the flooded mine workings, and the regulation of the runoff of the internal waters of the underground mines and open-pit mines within the extracting and overburden stripping places. The protection against the waters from the flooded mine workings is performed using the pumping-out of the water, or using the preservation of the reliable pillars within the flooded mine workings, which are situated hypsometrically above the extracting places, and using the creation of the water-impermeable bulkheads (including the automatic bulkheads). The regulation of the runoff of the internal waters of the underground mine (of the open-pit mine) is performed with the help of the pumping-out of the water, with the help of the diversion of the water, and with the help of the barrage, and within the extracting places, using the deviation of the direction of the excava tion from the direction of the dip of the sole of the useful minerals, which action permits us to divert the waters from the extracting stopes into the goaf space or into the lateral mine workings; with the help of the continuous advancement of the extracting stope (if possible, with the high speed), for the decreasing of the duration of the contact of the water with the broken and country rocks, and also for the decreasing of the inflows of the water into the near-stope space; using the method of the usage of the portable pumps for the timely pumping of the water, which is accumulating within the troughs near the stopes.
During the designing of the systems for the water control, there are used the data from the exploration of the deposits of the useful minerals, while for the deposits with the complicated conditions, there are performed the additional observations and instrumental measurements at the analogous underground mines and open-pit mines, there are also used the modeling within the laboratories, and the analytical methods for the calculation with the usage of the modern means of the computing equipment. The prospective directions for the development of the water control are associated with the study and accounting of the filtration anisotropy of the massif of the water-bearing rocks, with the perfecting of the analytical methods for the calculation and modeling of the drainage, barrage, and so on.
|A a||B b||C c||D d||E e||F f|
|G g||H h||I i||J j||K k||L l|
|M m||N n||O o||P p||Q q||R r|
|S s||T t||U u||V v||W w||X x|
|Y y||Z z|