Letter "W"

Worldwide Mining Congress

WORLDWIDE MINING CONGRESS is the international non-governmental organization, which unifies the specialists and scientists from the different countries, which are working within the field of the mastering of the deposits of the solid useful minerals.


WULFENITE is the mineral of the class of the molybdates, namely, Pb(MoO)4.


WITHERITE is the mineral of the class of carbonates, BaCO3. Witherite sometimes contains the impurities of Sr (up to 1.5%), Ca, less often Mg, Cu (< 1%).


WITWATERSRAND is the ore region within the Republic of South Africa, which is including the complex deposit of gold and uranium of the same name, which is unique in terms of the reserves. This region is situated within the Transvaal and Orange provinces.


WITBANK is the largest mineral coal basin within the Republic of South Africa. This basin is situated within the Transvaal (the large part), Natal, and Orange provinces. The length is approximately 550 kilometres. The area is more than 55 thousand square kilometres.

Wind impact

WIND IMPACT WITHIN THE MINING CRAFT causes the influence onto the built structures of the surface at the underground mines, of the open-pit mines, of the petroleum and gas productive fields...

Werner, Abraham Gottlob

WERNER, Abraham Gottlob was the German geologist and mineralogist. Werner studied at the Freiberg Mining Academy (1771), and at the Leipzig University (1769-74). Within the Freiberg Mining Academy, Werner taught since the 1775 the mining craft and mineralogy.

Water balance

WATER BALANCE is the quantitative expression of the water cycle within the atmosphere, hydrosphere, on the Earth as a whole, or within its individual regions.

Water resources

WATER RESOURCES are the waters, which are suitable for the usage, within the rivers, lakes, canals, reservoirs, seas and oceans, the underground waters, the soil moisture, and also the waters (ices) of the polar and mountainous glaciers...


WATER is the simplest chemical compound of hydrogen with oxygen, H2O (11.19% of hydrogen, and 88.81% of oxygen, by the mass), which is widespread within the nature, and is stable under the usual conditions...


WOLFRAMITE is the mineral of the class of the tungstates, (Mn,Fe)WO4. The content of the WO3 is 74-76%. Sometimes, there exist the admixtures of Ca, Nb, Ta, Mg (mostly in the form of the micro-inclusions of the scheelite, columbite, and other minerals).

Wave impact

WAVE IMPACT is the interaction of the marine waves with the watercrafts, built structures, drilling installations, and similar equipment, and also with the marine shores, underwater mine workings, and bottom.


WOLLASTONITE (from the name of the English naturalist William Hyde Wollaston) is the mineral of the subclass of the chained silicates, Ca3[Si3O9].

Water cone

WATER CONE is the local uplift of the surface of the plantar water during the operating of the borehole within the petroleum or gas reservoirs.


WATER-STABILITY of the explosive substances is the ability of the explosive substances to withstand the penetration of the water into these substances, or to preserve the explosive properties in case of the filling with the water.

Water-resistant rocks

WATER-RESISTANT ROCKS are the rocks, which are not allowing to pass (or almost not allowing to pass) the free water in case of the natural pressure gradients.

Water-resistant bulkhead

WATER-RESISTANT BULKHEAD is the built structure for the insulation of the active underground mine workings against the sudden breakthroughs of the water into these mine workings.


WATERCOURSE is the natural (or artificial) water flow, which is moving along the direction of the slope.

Water-containing explosive substances

WATER-CONTAINING EXPLOSIVE SUBSTANCES are the explosive substances, which are based on the ammonium nitrate, and are plasticized using the aqueous gelatin.

Water supply

WATER SUPPLY within the mining craft is the provision of the mining enterprises with the water.

Water collector

WATER COLLECTOR within the underground mine is the complex of the underground mine workings, which are purposed for the collection, accumulation, and partial clarification of the waters within the underground mine...

Water-spray curtain

WATER-SPRAY CURTAIN is the water-air medium, which is created for the prevention of the ignition and of the transmission of the explosion within the methane-dust-air mixture during the conducting of the blasting works within the stopes of the underground mines.

Water-distribution system

WATER-DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM is the complex of the pipelines, pumping and other special equipment of the productive petroleum fields for the delivery of the water to the injection boreholes.


WATER-STABILITY of the rocks is the ability of the rocks to retain the strength during the interaction with the water.

Water permeability

WATER PERMEABILITY of the rocks is the ability of the rocks to permit the water to pass through the voids (pores, cracks, and so on) under the impact of the gravitational forces, pressure, or capillary rise.

Water supply network within the underground mine

WATER SUPPLY NETWORK WITHIN THE UNDERGROUND MINE is the system of the pipelines, which are providing the delivery of the water for the dust suppression devices, and for the containment and extinguishing of the underground fires.

Water consumption

WATER CONSUMPTION within the mining craft is the expenditure of the water by the mining enterprises for the technical and household-domestic purposes.

Water table management

WATER TABLE MANAGEMENT is the method for the lowering of the level and pressure of the water with the help of the drainage devices during the conducting of the mining works.

Water treatment

WATER TREATMENT is the stabilization and purification of the superficial and waste waters of the mechanical admixtures, of the compounds of the iron, and of the petroleum, at the water-purification stations and other facilities.

Water absorption

WATER ABSORPTION of the rocks see the "Moisture capacity" article.

Water absorbents

WATER ABSORBENTS for the pipelines are the substances, which are purposed for the removal of the water vapours from the hydrocarbon gases (of the natural and petroleum types)...

Water-purification station

WATER PURIFICATION STATION is the complex of the equipment for the purification of the waste and superficial waters, which are purposed for the artificial water flooding of the petroleum layers.

Water management

WATER MANAGEMENT is the removal of the waters within the underground mines and open-pit mines from the mine workings.

Water separator

WATER SEPARATOR is the apparatus for the separation of the water from the accompanying water-insoluble phases.

Water yield

WATER YIELD of the rocks is the ability of the water-saturated rocks to yield the water through the free flowing under the influence of the force of gravity, or as the result of the impact (pumping-out, vacuuming, and so on).

Water diversion

WATER DIVERSION is the removal (usually using the free gravity flow) of the underground mine, open-pit mine, and drainage waters from the near-stope place into the watercourses and water bodies...

Water-petroleum contact

WATER-PETROLEUM CONTACT is the surface, which separates the petroleum reservoir or the petroleum fringe of the gas (of the gas condensate) reservoir within the layer from the pressurized waters within this layer...

Water-impermeable concrete

WATER-IMPERMEABLE CONCRETE is the structural concrete, which does not permit the water to pass under the pressure of 0.2 megapascals and more; this concrete is used for the underground mine construction...

Water-impermeable linings

WATER-IMPERMEABLE LININGS are the special types of the permanent mining lining, which are purposed for the prevention of the infiltration of the underground waters into the mine workings...

Water-saturated rocks

WATER-SATURATED ROCKS are the rocks, within which all the pores and voids are completely filled (are saturated) with the free and bound water.

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