VENTILATORY INSTALLATION (EN: fan installation, ventilation plant; DE: Lufteranlage; FR: ventilateur, installation d'aerage; ES: instalacion de ventilacion; RU: вентиляторная установка) is the special equipment, and, at the underground mines, also the complex of the devices, built structures, and so on, for the airing of the underground and opencast mine workings.
The ventilatory installations for the underground mines comprise the ventilator for the underground mines with the working and reserve electric motors, the diffuser with the silencer, which is situated at the end of this diffuser, the supply channel with the connecting knee joint, the bypass channel, the shutters for the reversing of the air flow, the winches for the moving of the shutters, and the output channel. Besides these components, there belong to the ventilatory installations the starting, controlling-measuring, distributing, and protecting apparatuses, the apparatuses for the remote control, the auxiliary equipment for the control of the air streams, and the buildings.
At the underground mines, which are dangerous because of gas, there belongs to the structure of the ventilatory installations the second reserve ventilator of the same type with the motor. The ventilatory installation is placed on the surface near the mouth of the hermetically sealed shaft, exploring shaft, adit, borehole, and is connected with them using the supply channel. The latter channel comprises the straight section, and the branches to the working and reserve ventilators. All the conjugations are made continuous, the angles for the turning of the air stream are made minimal, and the walls are made smooth. The area for the cross section of the channel is selected thusly, in order to ensure the speed for the movement of the air not more than 15 metres per second. There are connected to the channel the apparatuses for the measuring the consumption of the air and the depression. The bypass channel is purposed for the reversing of the air stream; this channel connects the output part of the diffuser with the supply channel. The ventilatory installation may have one or two bypass channels. The reversing devices ensure the change for the direction of the ventilatory stream after at most 10 minutes. During the work of the centri fugal ventilators, and of the majority of the axial ventilators, the reversing is ensured using the changing of the position of the shutters, while during the work of the ventilators with the counter-rotation, the reversing is ensured using the changing of the direction of the rotation of the impeller. The volume of the air, which is entering into the underground mine during the reversive mode for the airing, is at least 60% of its quantity during the normal mode. For the reliable and continuous ventilation of the mine workings, the normal, reversive, and transient modes for the airing, and also the monitoring over the work of the ventilatory installations, are performed automatically. The installed power of the large ventilatory installations reaches 5000 kilowatts.
The ventilatory installations for the open-pit mines are purposed for the delivery of the fresh air into the stagnant zones of the open-pit mines, for the removal of the contaminated air outside the limits of the space of the open-pit mine, and also for the active suppression of the harmful admixtures using the air-water jets.
Under the conditions of the active open-pit mine, there is most suitable the usage of the self-propelled and mobile ventilatory installations of the jet type, namely, on the railway, automotive, and tracked chassis. They distinguish the ventilatory installations of the jet type, which are creating the isothermal, non-isothermal, and convective jets.
The ventilatory installations with the isothermal and non-isothermal jets are equipped with the irrigating systems. Water or active solutions are introduced immediately into the ventilatory stream. There have the advantage in terms of the specific energy expenditures the ventilatory installations with the isothermal jets, which have the diameter of the initial cross section (rotor), which is as large as possible. There belong to such installations the aggregates with the centrifugal and axial ventilators, and also with the usage of the aviation propellers and turboprop engines, which are equipped with the devices for the output of the exhaust gases from the turbine outside of the air jet, which is created by the propellers. There are used within the USSR: the PVU-6 installation with the special ventilator of the jet type, the self-propelled UMP-1 installations for the irrigation and ventilation with the aviation propellers on the base of the automobile, the NK-12KV ventilator-irrigator, and the UMP-14 and UMP-21 ventilatory aggregates on the base of the main carrying rotors of the helicopters.
The ventilatory installations with the non-isothermal jets are mounted with the turboprop and turbojet engines without the devices for the output of the gas. The installations with the turbojet engine are mounted on the base of the automobile. The ventilatory installations, which are creating the convective jets (the thermal ventilatory installations), use the liquid or gaseous fuel; they work with the burners, which are placed onto the rotating hollow truss, and with the burners, which are situated within the cylindrical casing. They mount the ventilatory installations of the first type onto the skids or pneumatic wheels; the convective jet is created by the burners with the spiral evaporators. Within the installation of the second type, the convective jet is formed by the burners, which are placed within the cylindrical casing. The characteristics of the known ventilatory installations have the broad range of the values: the initial consumption of the air is from 125 to 3770 cub ic metres per second; the power is from 220 to 80000 kilowatts; the throwing distance of the jet is up to 1300 metres; the consumption of the air at the end of the active section of the jet is up to 80000 cubic metres per second; the hourly consumption of the fuel is up to 7900 kilograms; the electric power is up to 1000-1200 kilowatts.
The effective airing of the working zones within the large open-pit mines is possible in case of the usage of the systems for ventilation, which are comprising several powerful ventilators, which are situated within the space of the open-pit mine, while taking into account the configuration of the open-pit mine, and the relief of the surrounding terrain.
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