Vadose water

VADOSE WATER (EN: leakage water, vadose or temporary water; DE: oberirdisches Wasser, vadoses Wasser; FR: eau à ciel ouvert, nappe suspendue temporaire; ES: aguas à cielo abierto; RU: верховодка) is the temporary accumulation of the gravitational underground waters within the zone of aeration within the rocks (soils), which are underlain by the lenses or tapering streaks of the waterproof (or slightly permeable) rocks. The vadose water is formed as the result of the penetration of the atmospheric or surface waters (the melted snow or freshet waters), and also from the artificial water bodies; the vadose water disappears as the consequence of the internal evaporation from the soil, of the seepage through the slightly permeable soils, or of the penetration to the permanently existing level of the ground waters. The vadose water is characterized by the seasonal variability, by the limited area of distribution, by the rapid fluctuations of the level, of the reserves, and of the chemical composition of the waters. The vadose water is, as a rule, not suitable for the water supply. During the conducting of the opencast mining works within the region of the development of the vadose water, there is necessary the provision of the stability for the slopes of the entrance and incision trenches, and of the working sides, which is achieved by the usage of the extra loads, by the construction of the horizontal drainage boreholes, by the usage of the water drainage and water diversion.