Upper waters

UPPER WATERS (EN: upstream water; DE: Obergrundwasser, Oberflachenwasser; FR: eaux sous-jacentes, eaux superficielles; ES: aguas superiores; RU: верхние воды) are the waters, which are confined to the aquifers, which are embedded above the productive petroleum-and-gas-bearing layers. In this case, the petroleum-and-gas-bearing layers, and the overlying aquifers, are hydraulically isolated, and form the autonomous tabular reservoirs. During the process of the development of the petroleum and gas fields, it is necessary to undertake the actions for the isolation of the productive layers from the upper waters.