SAFETY SIGNS (EN: safety signs; DE: Sicherheitszeichen; FR: signes de securite; ES: senales de seguridad; RU: безопасности знаки) are the conventional designations in graphical form of the messages for the occupational safety. They are purposed for the attraction of the attention of the working persons to the immediate danger, for the warning about its possibility, for the prescription and permission of the certain actions for the purpose of ensuring the safety, and also for information.
Within the mining industry of the USSR, the safety signs (in the form of the warning placards) are used since the 30-ies. The field of the usage of the first safety signs has been limited at the electrical-technical installations. Since the start of the 40-ies, there are used the road signs at the underground mine transport. The first list of the standard safety signs for the coal and ore (of the non-ferrous metals) mines has been approved by the corresponding ministries during the 1968. During the 1970, there have been introduced the "Unified signs, conventional signals and inscriptions" for the mines of the ferrous metallurgy. On the territory and within the productive enclosed spaces on the surface of the mining enterprises, there work the Safety signs according to the GOST 12.4.026-76 governmental standard; within the mine workings and at the underground transport within the mines of the Ministry of the coal industry of the USSR, there work the "Unified signs" (1981); at the mines of the Ministry of the ferrous metallurgy of the USSR, there also work the "Instructions for the signalization at the railway transport of the enterprises", the "Rules for the road traffic", the "Unified signs, conventional signals and inscriptions".
Depending on the character of the transmitted message, safety signs are sub-divided into the prohibiting, warning, prescribing, and pointing ones (see the major safety signs on the figure).
Prohibiting safety signs do not permit to perform certain actions, warning ones inform the workers about the danger, prescribing ones oblige to comply with the conditions, and undertake the measures for ensuring the safety of the labour, pointing ones inform about the location of various objects and devices (for example, emergency exits, places for medical help, telephone apparatuses, and so on). See the figure.
They install safety signs within the mine workings, on the territory of the mining-extracting enterprises, within their productive enclosed spaces. The schemes for the placement of the safety signs within the mine workings are composed by the commission under the chairmanship of the chief engineer, with participation of representatives from the technical inspection of the trade union of the workers of the branch of the industry, with participation of the regional mining-technical inspection, and are approved by the administration of productive consortium. The schemes are revised annually. At the enterprises of the Ministry of the coal industry of the USSR, certain safety signs are being installed by the workers of the mines in the expeditious manner. At the facilities of the gas and petroleum industry, the places for the installation of the safety signs are regulated by the OST documents, where the OST combination means in Russian the standard for the branch of the industry. The graphics and technical characteristics for the safety signs are approved by the ministries for the branches of the industry.
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