Safety of the labour within the mining-extracting industry

SAFETY OF THE LABOUR WITHIN THE MINING-EXTRACTING INDUSTRY (EN: safety in the mining industry; DE: Arbeitssicherheit in der Bergbauindustrie; FR: securite miniere; ES: seguridad minera en; RU: безопасность труда в горнодобывающей промышленности) is the state of the labour conditions at the facilities of the mining-extracting industry, in case of which there is excluded the impact of the dangerous and harmful productive factors onto the working people.

Within the USSR, the safety of the labour is ensured for the protection of the labour by the performance of the complex of the measures for the prevention of the injuries, diseases, and accidents. The basic principles for the protection of the labour are described within the Constitution of the USSR, within the Fundamentals of the legislation of the USSR and Union republics on the labour, and within the Fundamentals of the legislation of the USSR and Union republics on the underground resources. The measures for the creation of the safe conditions for the works are conducted in accordance with the unified for all the sectors of the national economy inter-sectoral and sectoral rules on the protection of the labour (the rules of the occupational safety and fire safety, the sanitary norms and rules) and instructions for them, and also with the individual instructions and guidances. Within the mining industry, there are active the "Safety rules within the coal and shale mines", the "Unified safety rules for the development of the ore, non-metallic, and placer deposits with the underground method", the "Safety rules within the petroleum and ozokerite mines", the "Safety rules for the sinking of the mine shafts with the special methods", the "Unified safety rules for the development of the useful mineral deposits with the open pit method", the "Unified safety rules for the blasting works", the "Sanitary rules on the creation and operation of the enterprises within the coal industry", the "Safety rules within the petroleum and gas extracting industry", the "Unified safety rules for the geological-explorative works", the "Safety rules at the enterprises for the beneficiation and briquetting of the coals (shales)", the "Unified safety rules for the crushing, sorting, and beneficiation of the useful minerals, and agglomeration of the ores and concentrates". There are associated with the requirements of the safety rules the rules for the technical operation, which have been developed for the coal and shale underground mines and open pit mines. There supplement the safety rules the construction norms and rules (for example, on the heading of the underground mining workings, on the fire protection of the buildings and built structures at the industrial site). In combination with the safety rules, there are active the systems of the standards for the safety of the labour, namely, the governmental one (for all the sectors of the industry and inter-sectoral), sectoral one, and republican one. The standards for the safety of the labour are created according to the procedure, which has been established by the Governmental committee of the USSR on the standards.

The administration of enterprises and organizations must provide the safe conditions for the labour in accordance with the acting rules, norms, and instructions, with which there must comply the designated persons (managers, engineering-technical workers, and master-supervisors of enterprises and facilities, which are working or are being built, and also the workers of the design and engineering institutions and organizations). The periodic, additional, and extraordinary testing of the designated persons for the knowledge of the listed norms is being performed by the attestation commissions. The training and instructing of the workers is conducted in accordance with the acting sectoral safety rules within the mining-extracting industry, taking into account the Instructions of the GOST 12.0.004-79 SSBT governmental standard (the organization of the training for the working persons on the safety of the labour; the general regulations). The workers must comply with the instructions on the protection of the labour according to their profession. The testing of the knowledge of these instructions is conducted by the special commissions during the hiring of the workers according to their profession, during the transfer to another profession, and periodically. Together with the conducting of the activities on the safety of the labour, all the mines during the period of the construction, reconstruction, and operating, are provided with the mining-rescue service, where are included into the task of which the rescue of the people, which have been caught-up by the accidents, and also the prevention and elimination of these accidents. The service is performed by the paramilitary mining-rescue detachments (VGSCH), and by the voluntary mining-rescue teams (VGK). VGSCH sometimes serves also the open pit coal mines and beneficiation plants. The enterprises, which are conducting the drilling works during the development of the petroleum and gas fields, are served by the paramilitary detachments (squads), the task of which includes the prevention of the emergence, and the elimination of the open gas and petroleum fountains. In order to provide the help for these detachments, there are organized the voluntary squads. In accordance with the articles # 244-248 of the Labour Code of the Russian Federation, there are established the intra-department, government, trade union, and community types of supervision for the compliance with the rules, norms, and instructions. The intra-departmental supervision is performed by all the governing and engineering-technical workers, and also by the workers of the special service for the occupational safety and industrial sanitation, which has been created at the enterprises and within the superior economic organizations. There play the important role the geological service and the mine surveying service.

The governmental supervision over the compliance with the rules and norms of the occupational safety is one of the major functions of the Governmental committee of the USSR for the supervision over the safe conducting of the works within the industry and for the mining supervision (the Gosgortekhnadzor of the USSR) and its local organizations. The Gosgortekhnadzor of the USSR performs its activity in the contact with the technical inspectorate for the labour within the Central Committee of the trade unions, and with the Governmental inspectorate for the energetical supervision within the system of the Ministry for the energetical industry and electrification of the USSR (the Gosenergonadzor of the USSR). The governmental supervision over the compliance with the rules and norms for the fire safety during the design, construction, and operation of the buildings and built structures is performed by the Main administration for the fire protection of the Ministry for the internal affairs of the USSR and its local organizations, and also by the detachments for the fire protection, which are immediately subordinate to the Ministry for the internal affairs of the USSR. The organizations of the Gospozharnadzor of the USSR have been made responsible for the monitoring of the status of readiness of the departmental and volunteer fire detachments. The governmental supervision over the compliance with the sanitary rules and norms is one of the functions of the Governmental sanitary supervision of the Ministry for the health of the USSR (Gossannadzor of the USSR) and of the union republics; it is performed through the organizations of the sanitary-epidemiological service. The supreme governmental supervision over the exact compliance with the laws on the labour and with the rules on the protection of the labour by all the departments and their designated persons is performed by the Prosecutor general of the USSR, both immediately, and through the subordinate offices of the prosecutors at the local places.

There performs the trade union supervision over the compliance with the requirements of the safety and industrial sanitation the technical inspectorate for the labour of the Central Committee of the trade unions, which is acting with the rights of the governmental supervision within all the sectors of the industry. There belong under the authority of the Central Committee of the trade unions also the juridical inspectorate of the labour, which performs the supervision over the compliance with the laws on the labour through the juridical inspectors of the juridical departments of these organizations.

The community monitoring of the compliance with the requirements of the protection of the labour is performed by the local trade union committees through the community inspectors and commission for the protection of the labour. The violation by the designated persons of the laws on the labour and of the rules on the protection of the labour, and also the non-compliance with the prescriptions from the governmental organizations for supervision, which are based on these regulations, entail the disciplinary, administrative, or criminal liability. The enterprises must compensate the workers and employees the material damage, which has been caused because of the guilt of the enterprise by the injury or other damage of the health, which is associated with the work. The workers are responsible for the non-compliance with the requirements of the instructions on the protection of the labour in accordance with the procedure of the laws on the disciplinary or criminal liability.

The system for the ensuring of the safety of the labour within the mining-extracting industry of the developed capitalistic countries has certain peculiarities. Within the USA, there serve as the rules for the safety the obligatory standards, which have been established by the federal law of the 1969 about the occupational safety and about the protection of the health of the people, who are working within the mining sector (within the coal industry), and by the federal law of the 1970 about the occupational safety within the ore and non-ore industries. The procedure for the performance of these laws (standards), for the supervision over the compliance with them, for the responsibility for the non-compliance, and so on, is provided within the federal law of the 1977 about the occupational safety and the protection of health within the mining productive industry. The development and the revision of the standards are assigned to the Admininstration for the occupational safety and for the protection of the health within the mining productive industry within the structure of the federal Ministry of the labour. The standards are introduced into the action by the American national institute for the standards, or by the Ministry for the internal affairs. The supervision over the compliance with the law of the 1977 and with the standards is performed by the administration through the staff of the inspectors within the mining regions. The scientific-research works on the issues of the occupational safety are conducted by the Mining bureau of the USA within the system of the Ministry for the internal affairs (the Denver city).

Within the Great Britain, the rules for the safety are established by the Governmental administration for the protection of the health and for the occupational safety within the structure of the Ministry for the labour and employment. The active rules for the safety within the coal industry have been adopted during the 1956. The standards for the requirements of the safety are introduced into the action by the British organization for standardization. The supervision over the compliance with the rules for the safety is performed by the administration through the staff of the inspectors within the mining regions. The scientific-research works on the issues of the occupational safety are conducted within the Institute for the safety of the works within the mines within the system of administration (the Sheffield city).

Within the West Germany, the rules for the safety were established by the Main mining administrations (the administrations of the mining regions) of the federal lands within the structure of the Ministries for the economy. During the 1974, there have been adopted by the Main mining administrations the rules for the safety, which are unified for all the lands. The supervision over the compliance with these rules is performed by the Main mining administrations, to which there are subordinated the mining administrations (middle tier) and mining departments (lower tier). The representatives of the Main mining administrations belong to the "Mining craft" committee, which is headed by the federal minister for the economy; the task of the committee is only the development of the unified principles for the conducting of the mining-technical supervision. Together with the governmental supervision, there is performed the monitoring for the compliance with the requirements for the protection of the labour by the mining trade union organizations. The laws and regulations, which are containing the requirements for the protection of the labour, which are common for all the sectors of the industry, are established by the Federal ministry for the labour. The standards for the requirements for the safety are developed by the Federal commission for standardization within the mining-extracting industry, and are introduced into the action by the Institute for the standards of the West Germany.