Processing of the stone by the diamond

PROCESSING OF THE STONE BY THE DIAMOND (EN: diamond stone working; DE: Diamantbearbeitung der Steine; FR: travail de la pierre par diamant; ES: trabajos en roca con diamante; RU: алмазная обработка камня) is the process of giving the required shape, size, texture and other properties to the billets and goods, which are made of the natural stone, with the help of the diamond tool. They suppose, that the processing of the stone by the diamond was used in the Bronze Age: they used in the Ancient Egypt during the sawing and drilling of the stone the tools, into the copper or bronze body of which there have been embedded the large crystals of the diamond, corundum, topaz, and other minerals. The first technical description of the processing of the stone by the diamond has been made by Pliny the Elder (1st century BC). The widespread introduction of the processing of the stone by the diamond into the industry has started in 1950 after the creation of the impregnated diamond tools with the metal bonds, which is produced by methods of the powder metallurgy.

Operation The material, which is processed The speed of the cutting, metres per second The speed of the working feed, metres per minute The productivity, square metres per hour The specific spending of the diamond, carats per square metre
The sawing by the stripe saws Granite(1) 1-3 0,001-0,0015 5-6 1,2-2,5
Marble(2) 1,5-4,5 0,003-0,005 12 0,08-0,45
Limestone(2) 1,5-4,5 0,005-0,008 16 0,10-0,18
The sawing and edging by the circular saws and cut-off segment disks Granite(2) 25-35 0,7-1,5 1-1,5 1-1,5
Marble(2) 40-50 0,2-7 6-8 0,07-0,35
Limestone(2) 40-65 0,2-1,5 8-11 0,07-0,25
The grinding-polishing by the end disks Granite(3) 12-25 1-3 2-4 1,1-1,4
Marble(4) 12-25 0,5-1,5 7-8 0,15-0,5
The milling by the cylindrical mills Granite(2) 25-35 0,4-0,9 0,3-0,8 1-1,5
Marble(2) 30-40 1-1,6 2-2,5 0,07-0,35
Note. The roughness of the surface of the processing (GOST 2789-73): (1) class IV; (2) classes III, IV; (3) classes IX, X; (4) classes X, XI.

The processing of the stone by the diamond is used in the stone processing industry in the most operations (Table): sawing (by the stripe, circular, tape, cable, chain saws), edging (by the cut-off disks), calibration and grinding-polishing (by the end and peripheral disks), milling (by the cylindrical and end mills), profiling (by the profiler peripheral disks), drilling (by the core drills and bits), and others.

The processing of the stone by the diamond obeys the general scheme of the destruction of the rock by the cutting tool with the following steps: the penetration of the grains into the stone with the formation of the fine products of the destruction; the formation before the grains of the compacted core of the fine products of the destruction, the excesses of which are removed through the gaps between the tool and the walls of the stope; the impact of the compressed core on the stope with the deformation of the latter, and with the formation of the system of the cracks; the tearing from the massif of the large element of the shaving with the simultaneous ejection of the fine products of the destruction, which are constituting the core.

The processing of the stone by the diamond is performed mainly with the moistening of the tool and work zone (most often by the water, sometimes with the additions of the surface-active substances) for the cooling of the tool, for the removal of the products of the destruction from the zone of the processing, for the decreasing of the friction of the diamond grains on the stone, and for the chemical impact on the stone, which is processed, for the decreasing of its strength. The value of the parameters and technical-economic indicators of the processing of the stone by the diamond are shown in the table. They choose the optimal regimes for the processing of the stone by the diamond on the basis of the minimal cost of the processing.