HUNGARY (HU: Magyarország; RU: Венгрия), Hungarian People's Republic (HU: Magyar Népköztársaság; RU: Венгерская Народная Республика) is the country within the Central Europe. Hungary borders Czechoslovakia to the north, USSR and Romania to the east, Yugoslavia to the south, and Austria to the west. The area is 93 thousand square kilometres. The population is 10.7 million persons (1982). The capital city is the Budapest city. In the administrative sense, Hungary is divided into 19 provinces, which include 97 districts. The official language is the Hungarian language. The monetary unit is the forint. Hungary is the member of the Council for the Mutual Economic Assistance since the 1949.
The general characteristic of the economy. The national income during the 1981 has exceeded 620 billion forints; of which 59.5% was accounted for the industry, 17.7% was accounted for the agriculture and forestry, 13.0% was accounted for the commerce, 9.1% was accounted for the transport, and 0.7% was accounted for the other sectors of the economy. Within the gross national product, the share of the industry has been increased since the 1929 till the 1980 from 38% to 51%, which was provided by the advanced tempos of the growth within the mining, metallurgical, and chemical industries, within the mechanical engineering industry, and within other branches of the industry.
The share of the mining industry within the total quantity of the industrial production within Hungary is approximately 6.3% (1980). The fuel-energy balance of Hungary (1980, %) is: petroleum and petroleum products are 32.1, gas and gas products are 27.2, coal and coal products are 27.1, thermal energy is 4.3, hydraulic energy is 0.1, and the import of the electric energy is 9.2. The production of the electric energy is 23.9 megawatt-hours (1980). Hungary participates in the "Mir" unified energetic system of the socialistic countries, and is receiving the electric energy from the USSR. The length of the railway is 8142 kilometres (1980), of which 1613 kilometres are electrified; the length of the automotive roads is 29759 kilometres (1980). The major river ports are: on the Danube river, Budapest, Győr, Komárom, Dunaföldvár, Baja, and Mohács; on the Tisza river, Szeged, and Szolnok.
The nature. Hungary is situated within the northern part of the Pannonian basin, which is enclosed by the Alps at the west, and by the Carpathian mountains at the north, east, and south-east. The large part of the territory of Hungary is occupied by the plains, and by the hilly places. The Danube river divides Hungary into two parts. To the east of the Danube river, there is located the Big Pannonian lowland, namely, the Alföld (Great Hungarian Plain), which is bounded at the north by the chain of the low mountains; the most high mountain is the Kékes mountain (1015 metres). There occupies the large part of the right bank of the Danube river the Transdanubia (HU: Dunántúl), which is the upland with the altitudes of 150-200 metres, which is transversed by the stripe of the low (400-700 metres) Hungarian Middle Mountains (the Transdanubian Middle Mountains; HU: Dunántúli-középhegység). At the north-west of the country, there spreads itself the Small Pannonian lowland (HU: Kisalföld), which is bounded at the west by the Sopron and Keszeg mountains (the foothills of the Alps), with the height of 500-800 metres.
The climate is temperate continental, with the hot summer, and with the comparatively cold winter. The average temperature during July is 20-22.5 degrees Celsius, and the average temperature during January is from -2 to -4 degrees Celsius. The atmospheric precipitation on the plains is from 900 millimetres per year at the south-west to 450 millimetres per year at the north-east.
The rivers within Hungary belong to the water drainage basin of the Danube river. The largest tributary of the Danube river is the Tisza river. The lakes are the lake Balaton (596 square kilometres), the lake Velence (26 square kilometres), the extreme southern part of the lake Fertő (23 square kilometres); and the Kisköre water reservoir. The forests of the oak, beech, and, to the lesser degree, coniferous types cover 13.6% of the area of Hungary. On the plains, 85-90 percents of the territory is occupied for the agriculture lands.
The geological structure. The territory of Hungary in the entirety represents by itself the part of the region with the intermountain depressions with the geologically heterogeneous structure, which is lying between the Alpine, Carpathian, and Dinaric mountain ridges.
According to the character of the geological structure on the territory of Hungary, there may be distinguished the protrusions of the basement, their sedimentary cover, and the depositions within the depressions. The basement within the territory of Hungary, which is lowered to 5-7 thousand metres within the certain places, is formed with the Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks, while within the southern part of the territory, the basement is formed with the pre-Cambrian rocks. The basement is dissected by the structural lines with the north-eastern direction, and has the blocked structure, which is reflected on the surface as the chains of the mountains of the Hungarian Middle Mountains, Mecsek, Villány, and others. The territory of Hungary is transversed by the Middle Hungarian deep fault, with which there are associated all the significant deposits with the ores of the non-ferrous metals. The most ancient (Late Proterozoic) metamorphic rocks emerge onto the surface along the edges of the depression, and have been unsealed using the boreholes within the southern part of this depression.
The Paleozoic stage of the development within the territory of Hungary is associated with the manifestations of the Caledonian and Variscan tectogenesis, which events have manifested themselves as the weak metamorphism of the Paleozoic rocks within the Small Hungarian depression, within the zone of the Lake Balaton, of the Uppony mountains, Szendrő mountains, and Northern Mecsek mountains (the Bretonian and Sudeten phases of the folding). The most ancient depositions, which are containing the organic remainders (graptolites), are the Silurian schists, which have been uncovered to the north of the Lake Balaton. The Devonian depositions (dolomite, limestones, and argillaceous shales) are known at the Szendrő mountains, and within the rocks of the basement within the Small Hungarian depression. The Carboniferous marine depositions (sometimes weakly coal-bearing) have been preserved as the individual spots under the cover; they also categorize to the Carboniferous the granitoids, which are emerging onto the surface at the Mecsek mountains (the southern stripe), and at the Velence mountains (the northern zone), and which have been unsealed using the boreholes at the north-east (to the Kecskemét city) and at the south-west (to the south of the Lake Balaton). With the Permian depositions (the stratum with the red-coloured sandstones and conglomerates) within the Mecsek mountains, there is associated the uranium mineralization.
During the Early Triassic marine transgression, there have been formed the mostly carbonatic rocks of the shallow water type; during the Middle Triassic, there has manifested itself the (acidic) volcanism; during the Late Triassic, there proceeded the accumulation of the thick (several thousand metres) strata of limestones and dolomites. At the start of the Jurassic, within the Transdanubian Middle Mountains region, under the conditions of the sea with the shallow water, there deposited themselves the red-coloured limestones, while at the Mecsek mountains, there deposited themselves the terrigenous rocks, which are containing the deposits with coal. There are characteristic for the Middle Jurassic depositions the facies of the open, deeper depressions, which fact may be explained with the maximal widening of the Tethys sea.
During the Early Cretaceous, within the various structural zones, there proceeded the differentiation of the processes of the accumulation of the sediments, and within the Mecsek zone, there has started itself the alkaline (basic) volcanism. During the Middle Cretaceous, there have occured the dislocations of the folding and thrust fault types. Within the Transdanubian Middle Mountains region, during the Middle and Late Cretaceous, and also during the Middle Eocene, there are associated with the transgressions and regressions of the sea the forming of the bauxites, and the forming of the depositions with the brown coals; the Upper Cretaceous limestones of the reef type are the collectors for the hydrocarbons. At the foundation of the cover of the Big Hungarian depression, to the south-east of the Middle Hungarian fault, within the mobile Mecsek-Debrecen zone, there, using the drilling, has been unsealed the flysch, which accumulated itself since the Late Cretaceous till the Oligocene. To the north-west of the Middle Hungarian fault, during the Late Eocene, there has manifested itself the powerful volcanism with the calcareous-alkaline andesite-dacite composition, with which there is associated various mineralization. Within the Transdanubian Medium Mountains region, during the Late Eocene - start of the Oligocene, there proceeded the accumulation of the marine and continental molasses. During the Savian phase of the folding, there were formed the tectonic structures with the north-western direction, and there proceeded the powerful effusions of the acidic volcanites. During the Styrian phase, the large grabens with the north-eastern direction were filled with the epicontinental marine sediments, within the foundation of which, there were formed the depositions with the mineral coal. Within the internal Carpathian volcanic arc, during the Mioc ene, there has manifested itself the andesite-rhyolite volcanism, with which there is associated the polymetallic mineralization.
During the Late Miocene time, there were formed the imposed depressions, within which there were accumulated the strata with the thinly clastic sediments, and with the to the less degree coarse clastic sediments, with the thickness of up to 2-3 thousand metres. During the Pliocene, the individual depressions merged into the unified large Pannonian depression, which was filled with the lacustrine, and during the Quaternary period, with the alluvial, sediments with the large thickness. With the Pliocene depositions, there is associated the large quantity of the depositions with lignites, petroleum, and gas.
The seismicity. Hungary does not belong to the seismically active regions of the Earth. The distribution of the seismic regions is controlled by the degree of the dissection of the territory of Hungary by the faults of the basement, and is controlled by the spreading of these faults. During the 20th century, there have been recorded on the territory of Hungary 10 earthquakes with the magnitude of up to 7-9 points.
The hydrogeology. On the territory of Hungary, they distinguish the following hydrogeological regions, which belong prevalently to the rocks of the Cenozoic and partly of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic age: the artesian basins within the Big Pannonian and Small Hungarian lowlands, and within the Southern part of the Transdanubian region; the volcanic mountains and intermountain depressions at the north of Hungary, with the prevalence of the interstitial waters; the region with the karstic waters of the Transdanubian Middle Mountains region, of the north of Hungary, and of the Mecsek-Villány mountains. Within the latter regions, the aquifers are associated with the cracked, karstic carbonate rocks, which are usually overlain by the water-impermeable depositions, but are sometimes exposed on the surface. There have the special significance the pressurized waters within the intensely karsted Triassic dolomites and limestones within the Transdanubian Middle Mountains region, because the deposits with the bauxites, coal, and manganese ores, which are being developed, are located lower than the static level of the underground waters. Within the basins with the loose porous depositions of the Pannonian stage and of the Quaternary age, the thickness of the water-bearing strata reaches 1000-6000 metres.
In association with the small thickness of the Earth's crust within the limits of the Hungarian depression (25-30 kilometres), and with the high geothermal gradient (17-18 metres per 1 degree Celsius), the significant quantity of the deep waters has the elevated temperature. The cold underground waters are used for the household and industrial purposes, the intermediate thermal waters are used for the medicinal purposes, the highly thermal (with the temperature of more than 70 degrees Celsius) waters, which are obtained from the boreholes with the great depth, are used for the household and agricultural purposes. The thermal waters have been unsealed by more than 500 boreholes. Out of their total yield, approximately 50% are used for the swimming pools, 30% are used for the heating within the agriculture, 3% are used for the heating of the inhabited homes, 15% are used for the water supply, and 2% are used for other purposes.
In terms of the chemical composition, they divide the waters into the simple thermal, alkaline-bicarbonate, calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate bitter, ferruginous, hydrogen sulfide, iodine-bromine, and radioactive types.
|(Table # 1) The reserves of the major useful minerals|
|The useful mineral||The explored and estimated reserves|
|total||including the reserves, which are used by the mining enterprises|
|of the categories A+B+C1||of the categories C2||of the categories A+B+C1||of the categories C2|
|The gas, billion cubic metres||126.7||50.7||113.7||10.7|
|The mineral coal, million tonnes||86.3||365.4||38.6||144.6|
|The brown coal and lignite, million tonnes||3193.3||1256.3||531.4||41.9|
|The peat, million cubic metres||262.39||145.3||30.15||1.9|
|The iron ores, million tonnes||6.2||2.4||6.2||2.4|
|The manganese ores, million tonnes||18.2||24.8||18.2||24.8|
|The refractory and acid-resistant clays, million tonnes||6.9||7.1||6.7||2.9|
|The bentonites, million tonnes||13.4||12.2||8.3||3.5|
|The perlites, million tonnes||2.7||1.3||2.7||1.3|
|The zeolites, million tonnes||33.2||18.4||1.0||-|
The useful minerals. The most important useful minerals are the bauxites, natural gas, brown coals, non-metallic useful minerals, and the raw materials for the production of the building materials. After the discovery of the Recsk deposit (1959), Hungary has widened the raw materials resource base for the copper, lead, zinc, and molybdenum. There exist the small deposits with the petroleum, iron ores, and manganese ores (see the Table # 1).
The fields with petroleum and gas are associated mostly with the Neogene pelitic depositions, less often there work as the the petroleum mother-rocks the Paleogene and Mesozoic depositions. There are confined to the Pliocene Lower Pannonian sandy horizons the Budafa, Lovasi, and Kunmadaras - Tatárülés petroleum-gas fields. All the reservoirs are of the layered-vaulted character, with the lithological or tectonic screening within the certain places. At the south-south-west of the country, there is confined to the Pliocene Lower Pannonian and Upper Pannonian sandstones the Babócsa-Görgeteg field. They categorize the Battonya field at the south-east of the country to the Pliocene Upper Pannonian sandstones, Lower Pannonian basal conglomerates, and Paleozoic quartzous porphyries, which are associated with them hydrodynamically. To the Pliocene Upper Pannonian and Lower Pannonian sandstones, Lower Pannonian basal depositions, and formations of the crystalline basement, which are associated with them hydrodynamically, there are confined the fields at the south of the country, namely, Pusztaföldvár and Algyő. They categorize the Hajdúszoboszló gas field to the Pliocene Upper Pannonian and Lower Pannonian sandstones, Sarmatian oolitic limestones, and flysch series of the Upper Cretaceous and Eocene age. There are associated with the Oligocene Rupelian sandstones the petroleum fields of the Demjén group (the Western Demjén, Eastern Demjén, and Pünkösdhed), which is situated to the north-east of the Budapest city. At the west of the country, within the Upper Triassic dolomites and Upper Cretaceous limestones of the Nagylengyel uplift, there have been identified 14 massive petro leum reservoirs. The North-Eastern Kiskunhalas gas-petroleum field is confined to the Miocene clastic-carbonate formations, and also to the weathered zone of the crystalline basement, and also to the Mesozoic carbonatic strata within the central part of the interfluve between the Danube and Tisza rivers. At the east of the country, the Sarkadkeresztúr reservoir with the gas condensate is confined to the massive trap, with the height of approximately 400 metres, within the cracked, weathered rocks of the crystalline protrusion.
The deposits with the fossil coals are represented mostly by the brown coals and lignite. The single basin with the coking mineral coal is the Mecsek basin. The coal-bearing stratum, which has been formed of the alternating layers of the sandstones, siltstones, argillaceous shales, and mineral coals, is underlain by the sandstones of the Triassic age, which transition themselves into the Lower Jurassic formations. Within the roof of the coal-bearing stratum, there are conformably embedded the sandy, clayish, and clean marls. The thickness of the coal layers is 0.4-7.4 metres, the angle of the dip is up to 40 degrees, and the ash content of the coal is 38.2%. The least heat of combustion for the working fuel is 18.4 megajoules per kilogram. There are characteristic the high content of methane, and the tendency of the coals to the sudden outbursts of the gas, and to the spontaneous ignition. They categorize to the Late Cretaceous the forming of the Mesozoic brown coal basin at the north-west of the foothills of the Bakony mountains. The coal-bearing stratum is underlain by the Upper Cretaceous clays, and by the pyrite-containing marls, is overlain by the marls with the the same age, and by the karstified Eocene limestones. Within the coal-bearing stratum, there are contained 5-7 layers of the brown coal with the total thickness of 12-15 metres. The least heat of combustion for the working fuel is 16.6 megajoules per kilogram, and the ash content is 21%.
They categorize to the Eocene age the brown coal deposits within the northern foothills of the Bakony mountains, within the Oroszlány and Tatabánya basins, and within the southern foothills of the Gerecse mountains. The coal-bearing depositions have been identified on the significant area with various geological cross sections. Within the sole of the coal-bearing stratum, there are embedded mostly the Eocene clays and sands, the Cretaceous clays and marls, while within the Gerecse region, there are embedded the redeposited Triassic dolomites. Within the roof, there are clays, marls, and sandstones of the Eocene. The productive stratum is formed of the interbedded sandstones, clays, and layers of the coal. Within the Tatabánya basin, there exist three layers of the coal, of which there are two layers with the thickness of 2-3 metres, while the thickness of the lower, or main, layer is 35 metres; within the Oroszlány basin, the thickness of the three layers, which are being developed, is 1.5-2.3 metres, while at the Nagyegyháza deposit, two layers have the thickness of approximately 3.5 metres each, and the lower layer has the thickness of up to 15 metres. The least heat of combustion is from 12-18.4 megajoules per kilogram (Oroszlány) to 20 megajoules per kilogram (Tatabánya). At the Dorog, Tatabánya, and Oroszlány deposits, among the Oligocene depositions, there are known the thin (1.5-2.0 metres) lenticular depositions with the brown coals, which are not being developed (1982). The Nógrád and Borsod brown coal basins have been formed during the Middle Miocene. The coal-bearing stratum, which has been formed with the argillaceous marls, siltstones, sands, sandstones, and layers of the coal, is underlain with the so-named lower rhyolitic tuff, and is overlain with the siltstones from the Middle Miocene, with the Tortonian andesite, and with the Sarmatian rhyolitic tuff. The quantity of the coal layers is 1-3, with the total thickness of 2-6 metres. The least heat of combustion for the working fuel is 11.9 megajoules per kilogram, while the ash content is 26%. There also belongs to the Middle Miocene (the Tortonian stage) the Várpalota Transdanubian basin. The coals are of the somewhat better quality, they are being briquetted, and are used within the energetic industry.
The lignite deposits with the large reserves have been identified within the southern foothills of the Northern Middle Mountains region, namely, to the south of the Cserhát, Mátra, and Bükk mountains, and also along the western border of Hungary (the Torony deposit). The lignite-containing stratum includes 3-15 layers of the lignites, with the total thickness of 8-20 metres. There underlay the productive stratum the Lower Pannonian sands, while the interlayer rocks are the sands and clayish depositions, the roof has been formed with the Quaternary continental sediments. The layers of the lignites are water-flooded. The least heat of combustion for the working fuel is 6.847 megajoules per kilogram, the ash content is 17-19%.
Hungary has the reserves of the geothermal energy, which are mostly accounted for the central and southern parts of the territory of the country. The reserves of the heat within the Pannonian basin to the depth of 3 kilometres amount to 77.8 x 10^5 megajoules per kilogram.
The single industrial Rudabánya deposit with the iron ores is being developed since the 13th century. The deposit has been formed as the lenses with the siderite ores with the thickness of 5-20 metres, which have emerged as the result of the hydrothermal metasomatism of the siliceous-carbonatic rocks of the early Triassic age. The content of iron within the ores is 16-23%. The near-surface part of the deposit within the oxidation zone has been formed with the limonite ores (26-46% of iron), which have been mostly exhausted, while the flanking parts of the siderite bodies are enriched with copper, lead, and barium.
|(Table # 2) The extraction of the major types of the mineral raw materials|
|The mineral raw material||1938||1945||1950||1960||1970||1980|
|The petroleum (*), thousand tonnes||43||656||612||1216||1937||2031|
|The gas, million cubic metres||8.1||76.5||379||341||3469||6142|
|The mineral coal, thousand tonnes||101.2||711||1400||2847||4151||3065|
|The brown coal and lignite, thousand tonnes||8886||4144||12899||27907||23679||22636|
|The iron ores, thousand tonnes||298||48||369||516||629||426|
|The manganese ores, thousand tonnes||45||50.1||78.9||123.3||218||83|
|The bentonite, thousand tonnes||-||-||50||71||65||78|
|The kaolin, thousand tonnes||-||-||15||43||78||59|
|The quartz sand, thousand tonnes||-||-||-||24||246||463|
|The perlites, thousand tonnes||-||-||-||7||60||99|
|The refractory and ceramic clays, thousand tonnes||-||-||15||105||97||115|
|The quartzite, thousand tonnes||-||-||-||28||33||43|
|The limestone and dolomite, thousand tonnes||-||-||-||733||1197||1325|
|(*) With the gas condensate.|
The explored reserves of the manganese ores are enclosed within the Úrkút deposit, which has been formed with the sedimentary-carbonatic ores of manganese. The age of the deposit is the middle and late Dogger. The thickness of the layers is 5-12 metres, the content of manganese is 14-22%. Within the marginal parts of the basin, the thickness of the layer is 1-5 metres, the ores are oxidic, the content of manganese is 26%.
In terms of the reserves of bauxites, Hungary holds the 6th place within the world. The major deposits are concentrated within the central part of the country, to the south-west of the Budapest city. The bauxite deposits have the Cretaceous age, and are immediately embedded on the surface of the Upper Triassic dolomite or limestone, within the karstic pits or tectonic depressions. Within the roof of the deposits, there are located the Cretaceous depositions, or more often the Eocene depositions, or sometimes younger formations, which are not having the immediate genetic association with the bauxites. They distinguish several types of the depositions: the tabular depositions (Iszkaszentgyörgy, Halimba, and Nagyegyháza), the lenticular depositions (Nyirád, and Iharkút), the karstic depositions (Iharkút, and Fenyőfő), the tectonically-graben depositions (Bakonyoszlop, and Fenyőfő), the nesting depositions (Nagyharsány), and the combinations of these depositions. The thickness of the depositions is 1-30 metres (sometimes reaches 100 metres), the mineral composition is: Al2O3 is 46-58%, SiO2 is 1-10%, Fe2O3 is 17-27%, TiO2 is 2-3%. There are contained within the bauxites 0.005% of Ga2O3, and 0.14% of V2O5, part of which is extracted during the processing. The ore is mostly of the gibbsite-boehmite type. The most typical bauxite deposits are the Halimba and Nyirád deposits. The Halimba deposit, which has been discovered during the 1920, and has been explored during the 1943, is situated at the south-west of the Transdanubian Middle Mountains region, within the southern part of the Bakony mountains, within the bowl-shaped depression, and is the largest deposit within Hungary. The bauxite deposition of the tabular type is underlain by Upper Triassic dolomites and Dachstein limestones, which have been disrupted by the karstic sinkholes and tectonic dislocations. On the area of approximately 20 square kilometres, there have been identified several depositions with bauxites, with the area of 1-7 square kilometres, with the irregular shape, with the thickness of 8-10 metres. The bauxites are overlain by the Upper Cretaceous depositions, and later by the Eocene and Miocene depositions, with the total thickness of 50-400 metres. The entire productive stratum submerges in the stepped man ner to the north-north-east along the direction to the Small Hungarian Depression with the inclination of approximately 10 degrees on average. The places with the industrial ores form the bodies with the irregular shape within the entire bauxite stratum. The average composition of the bauxites within the Halimba deposit is: Al2O3 is 50.6%, SiO2 is 8.7%. The bauxites of the high grades contain: Al2O3 is 56.1%, SiO2 is 2.7%, Fe2O3 is 24.3%, TiO2 is 2.7%. Of the components, which are extracted along the way, there exist V, Zr, B, Nb, and Ga. The depositions are of the boehmite type (54.8%), with the non-significant content of hydrargillite (0.6%).
The Nyirád bauxite deposit, which has been explored during the 1927, is situated at the south-west of the Transdanubian Middle Mountains region, within the northern foothills of the southern part of the Bakony mountains, within the coastal part of the Jurassic - Cretaceous synclinorium. On the area of 30 square kilometres, there exist the numerous bauxite bodies, namely, the lenses with the irregular shape, with the size of 0.1-10 hectares, with the thickness of 1-30 metres, less often up to 50 metres. The bauxite depositions are underlain with the loose, crumbling dolomite. Within the roof, there are embedded the Eocene clays, marls, and limestones, while within the certain places, there are embedded on the bauxites the Miocene and Pleistocene clastic depositions. The industrial ores are usually situated within the middle of the bauxite bodies. There are characteristic for the bauxites the following average contents: Al2O3 is 51.2%, SiO2 is 6.0%; while for the high-grade bauxites, there are characteristic the following contents: Al2O3 is 55.5%, SiO2 is 2.4%, Fe2O5 is 25.2%, TiO2 is 3.1%.
Gyöngyösoroszi is the single deposit with the lead-zinc ores within Hungary, which is being operated. This deposit is confined to the andesitic stratum of the stratovolcano of the Mátra mountains with the Middle Miocene age. Within the faults with the northern, north-western, and north-eastern strike, there have been identified 21 steeply dipping hydrothermal quartz veins with the thickness of 1-3 metres. The ores contain: Pb is 1.16%, Zn is 3.07%, Cu is 0.25%.
The resources of the copper ores within Hungary are associated with the Recsk deposit, which is situated to the north-east of the Mátra mountains. Here, since the middle of the 12th century, till the 1978, were developed the thin hydrothermal copper ore stocks, which are confined to the andesitic stratum of the stratovolcano of the Upper Eocene. During the 1959, using the boreholes with the depth of 1000-1200 metres, under the Eocene volcanic stratum, within the intrusion of the subvolcanic andesite, which has been introduced into the Triassic carbonatic rocks, has been unsealed the copper-porphyry deposit at the depth of 500-1200 metres, with the content of 0.8-1.0% of Cu and 0.005% of Mo within the ore, while at the flanks of the intrusion, there have been unsealed the hydrothermal metasomatic polymetallic ores, which are containing 1-2% of Pb, 4-5% of Zn, and approximately 0.2-0.4% of Cu. At the north-western and south-eastern flanks, the deposit has been unsealed using the two shafts with the depth of 1200 metres each, which are connected at the depths of 900 and 1100 metres using the main transport mine workings.
Of the non-metallic useful minerals, there are known the deposits with the refractory clays, bentonite, kaolin, and also with the non-metallic building materials. The refractory clays of the lagoon origin are embedded within the Lower Oligocene sandstones (the Felsőpetény deposit), the thickness of the layers is 1-5 metres. The main mineral is kaolinite, the content of SiO2 is 48-76%, of Al2O3 is 15-26%, of Fe2O3 is 1.7-3.5%. On the territory of Hungary, there exist several deposits with bentonite, with the content of montmorillonite of more than 25%, which have been formed as the result of the change of the rhyolitic tuffs (hydrothermal, limnological, and so on) of the Sarmatian age. The Istenmezeje deposit at the Mátra mountains is represented by the deposition with bentonite with the thickness of 1-3 metres; at the Tokaj mountains, the Rátka and Koldu deposits are represented by the multi-layered depositions, which are containing kaolin along with bentonite. The Bomboy-Kirayhed deposit with kaolin is associated with the zones of oxid ation. Within the Bodrogszegi deposit, there is embedded the stock with kaolin, with the length of 240 metres, with the width of 70 metres, and with the thickness of 70 metres; the content of Al2O3 is 28-34%. At the eastern part of the Tokaj mountains (Füzérradvány), there exists the deposition with illite, which has the great plasticity, and contains 7-15% of K2O. The thickness of the deposition is 8-10 metres. At the north-east of the Tokaj mountains, there are located the deposits with the volcanic glass, with the glass lava and perlite (has the ability to expand by 10-15 times). Within the Hungarian Middle Mountains region, there are located the deposits with dolomite (28-31% of CaO, 21-36% of MgO, up to 0.1% of Fe2O3), and with limestone (95-97% of CaSO3, 0.08-0.18% of Fe2O3).
The history of the mastering of the mineral resources. The first evidences about the usage of the rocks for the production of the stone implements belong to the period of approximately 700-500 thousand years ago (the Vértesszőlős camp of the Lower Paleolithic - Olduvai epoch near the Danube river). There is dated to the Paleolithic time the usage of flint, quartz, quartzite, and limestone; for the ritual purposes, there was used ochre (the Lovas settlement). With the start of the Neolithic (the 6th millennium BC), there is associated the widespread extraction of the clays and sands for the manufacturing of the ceramic tableware, and for the building of the dwellings (the Kiskőrös culture). There also belong to the Neolithic the quarries for the extraction of flint (Sümeg, Tata). During the 5th millenium BC, there is noted the massed usage of copper for the forging and casting of the implements and jewellery products. The ore sources for this metal were located, probably, within the limits of the Balkan peninsula or Transy lvania. During the same period, for the production of the jewellery products, there was used gold (the Tisapolgar-Bodrogkeresztúr culture). To the 13-12 centuries BC, there belongs the maximum of the production of the bronze implements, which have been dated to the epoch of the early metal. The major ore-mining centres were located within the limits of the Eastern Alps and Transylvania. With the emergence of the first iron implements during the start of the 1st millennium BC, or during the transition between the 2nd - 1st millenniums BC, the copper ore business within these regions fell into the decline.
During the times of the Roman Empire, during the 1st - 4th centuries, there was conducted the extraction of gold, silver, and salt. Within the limits of the Carpathian depression, there have been identified the traces of the mines, which were belonging to the Middle Ages, and to the 16th - 19th centuries. According to the archival data, during the 12th - 15th centuries, the extraction of gold, silver, and copper within Hungary reached 30-40% of the European extraction. The economic-juridic conditions for the mining craft within Hungary during that period have been documented within the legislative book of the King Bela IV (1245), and within the numerous archival documents. The evidences about the mining works during this time have been identified at the "Rudabánya", "Telkibánya", and other mines. There belong to the 16th century the first mentions about the petroleum manifestations on the territory of Hungary (Olah, Agricola). During the 17th century, the mining craft within Hun gary fell into the decline, mostly as the consequence of the Turkish rule. During the 18th century, there proceeds the new rise of the mining industry, and its further development: within Uibánya, for the first time on the continent, there has been used the "fire engine", the predecessor of the steam engine (1722), and within Selaknya, there has been used the first water pump (1749). The extraction of petroleum within Hungary has been started during approximately 1850 from the previously known petroleum sources within the flysch depositions of the Eastern Carpathians, and within the Neogene Muraköz basin, the extraction of coal has been started during the 18th century within Brennbergbánya, and grew rapidly in association with the development of the Danubian shipping, and later in association with the massed construction of the railways.
The mining industry. Within the structure of the mining industry within Hungary, there hold the major place (in terms of value) the fuel-energetic and bauxite industries (see the Table # 2). See the placement of the facilities of the mining industry on the map. Hungary imports petroleum, petroleum products, gas, mineral coal, coke, iron ore, and non-ferrous metals.
The petroleum-gas industry. After the 1880, there have been organized the first private companies, by which companies there have been discovered the fields with the heavy petroleum within the Upper Pannonian depositions within Tataros-Derna (Great Hungarian Plain) and within the Jurassic depositions within Staierlakanina (Transylvania), which yielded 90% of the extraction of petroleum within the country till the 1906. During the 1909, there has been discovered within Transylvania the Kissármás gas field, which was the largest gas field within Europe during this time. The geological mapping and prospective drilling, which have been conducted later, have led to the discovery of the largest part of the gas fields within the numerous terrigenous productive layers of the Tortonian and Sarmatian formations. During the 1911, there has been nationalized the petroleum and gas industry. The geological-exploratory works for petroleum and gas have led during the 1935 to the discovery of the Mihai carbon dioxide gas field, and of the Budafa (1937) and Lovasi (1940) petroleum-gas fields. During the 1951, there has been discovered the Nagylengyel petroleum field. The detailed study of the territory of the Alföld (Great Hungarian Plain) has led to the discovery of the gas and petroleum-gas fields: Pusztaföldvár (1958), Hajdúszoboszló (1959), Illés (1962), Szank (1964), Algyő (1965), Ferencszállás (1969), Szeged (1972). As the result of these discoveries, the centre of gravity of the extraction has been moved from the south-west of the country in to the eastern regions. Since the 1945 till the 1981, there have been drilled approximately 5800 boreholes with the total length of almost 10 million metres. During the 1945, there were known 10 clusters with petroleum and gas, and by the 1982, there were known more than 140 clusters. At the Algyő field, which is considered the largest field, for the increasing of the petroleum recovery from the so-called base petroleum reservoirs (the Algyő 1-2, and Szeged-1), since the start of the operation (1969), there is performed the double-sided injection of water for the maintainance of the reservoir pressure (at the petroleum - gas and petroleum - water contacts), as the result of which activity, the coefficient of the petroleum recovery turns out to be more than 40%. At the "old" Transdanubian fields, there is used the combined method for the injection of CO2 and water under pressure, with the purpose of the increase of the extraction. The deepest boreholes are: within the Transdanubian region, the Lovasi-II (5400 metres), and within the Alföld (Great Hungarian Plain) region, Hódmezővásárhely-I (5842 metres). At the Alföld (Great Hungarian Plain), there is engaged in operation the Nagyalföld enterprise for the extraction of petroleum and gas (the Szolnok city), which is providing the major part of the extraction within the country. The largest petroleum processing plant is situated within the Százhalombatta city.
The coal industry. Before the discovery of the fields with petroleum and gas, coal was the major source of energy (80% of the requirements for energy within the country during the 1949). By the start of the 80-ies, there were accounted for coal 25% of the total coverage of the energetic requirements within the country. The share of the produce from the coal industry within the gross national product of the country is 0.7% (1978). The extraction of coal has reached the maximal level during the 1965, namely, 31.4 million tonnes; during the 1980, there has been extracted 25.7 million tonnes of the marketable coal, including 3.1 million tonnes of the mineral coal (of which 84% was the coking coal), 14.1 million tonnes of the brown coal, and 8.5 million tonnes of lignite. There is extracted using the opencast method 12.6% of the mineral coal, 5% of the brown coal, and 85% of lignite, in total, 8.25 million tonnes, or 32% of the total extraction.
During the 1980, on the territory of Hungary, there worked 44 underground mines and 7 open-pit mines. There prevail (72% of the underground extraction) the underground mines with the productive capacity of up to 600 thousand tonnes per year. The average annual extraction per 1 underground mine is approximately 400 thousand tonnes per year. The mining-geological conditions for the development are very complicated: 67% of the underground mines are dangerous because of methane, 42% are dangerous because of the fire, 52% are dangerous because of the explosions of the coal dust, and 62% are dangerous because of the breakthroughs of the karstic waters. The layers are abound with disruptions, the host rocks are unstable. The average thickness of the layers (seams), which are being developed at the underground mines, is 3.4 metres (for the mineral coal), and 2.5 metres (for the brown coal). They obtain approximately 83% of the extraction from the layers with the thickness of 1-3.5 metres, and they obtain the remaining part from the thick layers (the share of the thin layers is less than 0.5%). They develop mostly the layers with the angle of dip of up to 25 degrees. There prevail the development using the longwall stopes (95%), and the management of the roof using the complete collapse (more than 97%). At the underground mines, there worked 113 retreating clearance stopes (the average length of the longwall stope is 70 metres), 47 of which were comprehensively mechanized (approximately 62% of the clearance extraction). There are used within the latter stopes the roof supports of the fatherland, Soviet, and Western European production.
There prevails (64%) the excavation by the narrow-scope combined cutter-loader machines of the helical type; there is accounted for the ploughs 11% of the retreating clearance extraction. The average daily working load onto the active longwall stope is approximately 600 tonnes, including more than 750 tonnes onto the comprehensively mechanized longwall stope. At the horizontal thick layers (the Dorog and Tatabánya deposits), the system for the development is with the usage of the horizontal layers, with the hydraulic stowing with sand, during the the excavation using the drilling-blasting method, and using the pneumatic jackhammers. The works are conducted at the depth of 130-350 metres. At the steep (up to 70 degrees) layers with the coking coal (the Mecsek deposit, where the development is conducted at the depth of 400-800 metres), there are used the shielded excavation complexes. The level of mechanization for the loading is approximately 55%. During the conducting of the preparato ry mine workings, there are used the combined tunneling machines. More than 85% of the mine workings have been fixated using metal, monolithic concrete, and reinforced concrete. Along with the haulage by the electric locomotives, for the transportation of coal and rock, there are used the automated belt conveyors, and for the delivery of the materials, there are being introduced the monorail railways. There exist 9 central mining rescue stations, and besides this fact, there exist the mining rescue stations at the individual underground mines. At the largest open-pit mine named after Maurice Thorez, there is extracted 7 million tonnes of coal per year, and there is being developed the thick layer with the brown coal (the stripping ratio is 6.4 cubic metres per tonne). The system for the development is without the transportation of the waste rocks (19%), and with the conveyor transportation (78%). The major excavating equipment is the multi-bucket and bucket-wheel excavators. The transportation of the coal from the stopes is performed by the conveyors.
Within Hungary, there work three coal preparation plants, with the average productive capacity of 1.7 million tonnes per year each. There is beneficiated 95% of the mineral coal, which is extracted. At the four briquetting plants, there is issued 1.25 million tonnes of the briquettes per year. Within the coal industry, there are employed more than 50 thousand workers for the extraction, including approximately 3 thousand workers at the open-pit mines. The shift productivity for the labour of the worker at the underground mines is approximately 1.7 tonnes, while at the open-pit mines, the productivity is more than 10 tonnes. In the prospective future, the extraction of coal within Hungary will grow to 30 million tonnes. There is conducted the construction for the four underground mines, and the reconstruction for the two active underground mines (the Tatabánya region). There is planned the construction of the new underground mines, which must be completely mechanized.
The geothermal energy (approximately 1300 megawatts per year) is used for the needs of agriculture, for the heating of the houses, within the industry, for the medicinal and health purposes.
The bauxite-extracting industry. The bauxite depositions have been uncovered for the first time during the start of the 1900-ies within the Halimba, Gánt, and Eplény region. The extraction of bauxites has been started during the 1926, with the development of the Gánt deposition (during the 1938, there has been extracted 0.5 million tonnes), then during the 1934, there has been obtained the first alumina, and since the 1935, there is produced the metallic aluminium. The bauxite depositions are located at the depth of up to several hundred metres, and have the thickness from several first metres to 100 metres. The near-surface depositions are being developed using the open-pit mines, while the deeply embedded depositions are being developed using the underground mines. In association with the fact, that the large part of the bauxite depositions is embedded below the level of the karstic waters, there is conducted the preliminary de-watering within the regions of the dep osits, with the help of the systems of the boreholes (Nyirád), or with the help of the drainage mine workings (Iszkaszentgyörgy). The large portion of the pumped water (approximately 400 cubic metres per minute) is used for the drinking and industrial purposes. During the underground development, there is used the chamber system with the layer-wise collapse, and the drilling-blasting breaking of the ore. The loading and transportation are performed with the help of the pneumatic and diesel-powered bulk-loading transporting machines with buckets (CAVO, DJOY), and with the help of the belt conveyors. The roof support is performed using the aluminium hydraulic struts. There is planned the introduction of the massed excavation with collapse, with the usage of the self-propelled equipment, and with the mechanization of the auxiliary processes. The total annual productive capacity of the alumina plants is 833 thousand tonnes, while the productive capacity of the aluminium plants is 73.8 thousand tonnes.
The extraction of the polymetallic ores. The single deposit, which is operated, is the Gyöngyösoroszi deposit, which has been unsealed to the depth of 600 metres using the capital adit and concealed shaft. The major system for the development is with the shrinkage of the ore within the clearance space, with the stowing and without the stowing. The ores, which are extracted, are beneficiated within the heavy suspensions and using the flotation, with the obtainment of the 47% zinc concentrates, and of the 50% lead concentrates, which are exported.
There is being constructed the Recsk mining-beneficiation combined enterprise at the Mátra mountains. The deposit is being unsealed using the two shafts with the depth of up to 1200 metres. There is expected to introduce the system for the development with the usage of the vertical chambers, with the breaking of the ore from the sub-level drifts, or using the long boreholes, or using the overhead stoping method with the shrinkage. The delivery of the ore is performed using the dump trucks (20 tonnes). The hoisting of the ore is performed using the skips with the capacity of 2x30 tonnes each.
The extraction of the non-metallic building materials. There are being developed 1085 deposits. There are extracted using the open-pit method the limestone (Eger-Felnémet, and others), dolomite (Pilisvörösvár, and others), glass sand (Fehérvárcsurgó, and others), gravel (313 quarries, including within Nyékládháza, Gyékényes, Hegyeshalom, and others), basalt (Uzha, and others), andesite (Tállya, and others), clay (151 quarries), sand (Kisőrs, Fehérvárcsurgó, and others), perlite (Pálháza), kaolin (together with bentonite, at the Rátka and Koldu deposits). There are being developed using the underground mine method the 6 deposits, namely, the refractory clays (Felsőpetény), anhydrite (Perkupa), illite (Füzérradvány), bentonite (Istenmezeje), talc (Felsőcsatár), kaolin (Bodrogszegi). The large portion of the produce (more than 87%) is being beneficiated. The dolomites are used within the metallurgy, construction, glass, and chemical industries, the limestones are used within the construction, sugar, and chemical industries, and for the obtainment of lime. The sand, which is extracted, is characterized by the high purity, and is used for the casting, the sand from the Fehérvárcsurgó deposit is used within the glass industry, the refractory clays (fat, lean, and sandy varieties) are used for the manufacturing of the thin ceramics and refractory materials. Perlite is the raw material for the lightweight concretes, for the sound-insulating and heat-insulating materials.
The extraction of the other useful minerals. The base of the ferrous metallurgy is the single commercial Rudabánya deposit, on the account of which the country covers 7% of the requirements for the iron ore raw materials. The siderite ores are extracted mostly using the opencast method, with the usage of the drilling-blasting works. There is used at the underground mines the chamber system for the development, with the breaking of the ore using the horizontal layers (with the collapse), and also using the vertical layers from the sub-level drifts (without the collapse). They roast the siderite ores, and beneficiate these ores using the magnetic separation, with the obtainment of the 40-42% iron concentrate. The manganese ores are extracted at the Úrkút deposit, mainly using the underground method with the chamber system for the development, using the horizontal layers with the collapse, and with the breaking of the pillars of the virgin rock. The ores are beneficiated using the washing with the obtainment of the 32% concentrate of the 1st grade, and using the hydrocyclone sorting, which yields 20-22% powdered manganese concentrate of the 2nd grade.
The protection of the underground resources and the recultivation of the lands. There belong to the most important activities: the detailed mapping of the surface, and of the underground depositions, for the determination of their sensitivity to the pollution; the study of the mutual relationship between the decrease of the yield from the thermal karstic water sources within the Hévíz and Nyirád region, and the lowering of the level of the karstic waters during the extraction of the bauxites; the searches for the geological structures, which are suitable for the burying of the toxic and radioactive wastes, in association with the construction of the nuclear electric power plant within the Paks city; the recultivation of the lands after the opencast development of the lignites within the region of the Gyöngyös city; the extraction of the mineral raw materials, which are used for the protection of the environment (the ion-exchange tuffs, filtering perlites, and others); the creation of the geological reservations (there are listed more than 150 protected geological cross-sections).
The mining mechanical engineering. The mining equipment within Hungary is manufactured mostly at the three enterprises. The governmental enterprise within the Budapest city manufactures mainly the unique equipment and structures: the lifting installations, the transportation equipment (for example, for the rope haulage), the ventilation equipment, and the certain types of the transportation means (the minecarts), the breaking-loading equipment in the small series, and also the metallic roof supports for the underground mines. The Transdanubian plant for the production of the petroleum-gas equipment within the Nagykanizsa city produces the drilling derricks, drilling tools, equipment for the operation of the boreholes, tanks, packers, locks, and so on. At the same plant, there is conducted the general repair of the equipment, which is used during the extraction of petroleum and gas. The plant within the Jászberény city manufactures the machines for the crushing, grinding, and classification of the solid useful minerals (mainly of the non-metallic building materials). There also issue the mining equipment certain plants with the other productive specialization: the coal mines within the Várpalota city issue the shields of the VOP type; the coal mines within the Tatabánya city issue the equipment for the beneficiation of coal and o res, the machines for the mixing of the sludge, and for the purification of the waste waters, and so on.
The scientific institutions. Within the field of geology and mining craft, there conduct the studies within the Budapest city: the Hungarian Governmental Geological Institute (has been founded during the 1869), and the Hungarian National Geophysical Institute named after Loránd Eötvös (has been founded during the 1919), within the system of the Central Geological Administration of Hungary; the Designing-Researching Institute for the Aluminium Industry (has been founded during the 1948); the Scientific-Researching Institute for the Development of the Petroleum-Gas Industry (has been founded during the 1967); the Central Institute for the Development of the Mining Craft (has been founded during the 1949) of the Ministry for the Industry of Hungary; the Central Designing-Researching Institute for the Silicate Industry (has been founded during the 1953) of the Ministry for the Building and Urban Development of Hungary; the Scientific-Researching Institute for the Water Resou rces (has been founded during the 1952), and the Institute for the Improvement and Documentation of the Water Resources (has been founded during the 1968), which belong to the system of the Governmental Administration for the Water Resources of Hungary. Within the Tatabánya city, there is situated the Institute for the Researching of the Explosive Technology (has been founded during the 1948).
Within the system of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, there are working: within the Budapest city, the Geochemical Scientific-Researching Laboratory (has been founded during the 1955); within the Miskolc city, the Scientific-Researching laboratory for the Extraction of the Hydrocarbons (has been founded during the 1957); within the Sopron city, the Institute for the Geodesy and Geophysics (has been founded during the 1955). Certain mining enterprises also have the scientific-researching divisions and laboratories. Among them, there are significant the scientific-researching division of the enterprises for the underground coal mines within the Mecsek city (the researches for the prevention of the danger of the outbursts of gas, for the prevention of the silicosis diseases), the division of the enterprise for the underground coal mines within the Tatabánya city for the purification of the water and for the beneficiation (the designing and development of the purification and benef iciation installations).
The training of the cadres. The higher mining education within Hungary has been originated during the 1735, with the organization of the Mining School within the Selmecbánya city (since the 1770, the Mining Academy). After the World War I of the 1914-18, the Academy has been moved to the Sopron city, and since the 1949, into the Miskolc city, as the Mining Faculty of the Polytechnic Institute for the Heavy Industry. At the Faculty, there are trained the mining engineers with the broad specialization, and also the mining engineers with the narrow specialization, namely, the petroleum men, geologists, and mechanics. The geologists and geophysicists are trained at the University named after Loránd Eötvös. Besides these institutions, the geological cathedras exist within the Szeged and Debrecen universities, within the Budapest Polytechnic Institute, and within the Veszprém Institute for the Heavy Chemistry. There trains the mining technicians the College for the Mining In dustry and Mining Managers (the Tatabánya city, has been founded during the 1896).
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