Embankment

EMBANKMENT (EN: shaft, bank, embankment; DE: Welle; FR: arbre; ES: eje; RU: вал) -

1) within the geomorphology, is the relatively narrow, long and low form of the relief. They distinguish the embankments, which have been created by the activity of the waves (the coastal embankments), of the river (the riverine embankments), of the glacier (the moraine embankments), of the volcanoes (the annular embankment), of the mudflow (the mudflow embankment), and others.

2) within the tectonics, the elongated positive platform-shaped structure, with the length of several tens or hundreds kilometres, with the width of tens kilometres, and with the height of up to hundreds metres; the average area is from 200 to 6000-10000 square kilometres.

The embankment usually unites the series, often several chains, of the local uplifts. On the tectonic plates within the ancient cratons, the embankments, as a rule, are limited by the flexures, and often accompany the zones of the faults, which are delimiting the uplifts and downfolds of the basement; they name such embankments as sutural (for example, the Bolshekinelsky embankment on the Russian tectonic plate). Certain embankments of the young cratons inherit the anticlinal zones of the folded basement (the inherited embankments). The complex embankments represent by themselves the systems of the embankments (for example, the Vyatka embankment on the Russian tectonic plate).