DRILLING RIG (EN: drilling rig; DE: Bohranlage; FR: foreuse, sondeuse, installation de forage; ES: equipo perforador; RU: буровая установка) is the combination of the machines and mechanisms, which is purposed for the drilling, and fixation of the boreholes, and also of the mine shafts. The drilling rigs for the exploration of the deposits with the useful minerals, for the development of the petroleum fields (see the Figure), of the gas fields, of the underground waters, and for the deep geological researches, are sub-divided into collapsible and non-collapsible, according to the method for the installation, and according to the type of the transportation.
The drilling rig:
- the derrick;
- the crane-block;
- the swivel;
- the draw-works with the gearbox;
- the drilling pump with the electric mover;
- the auxiliary winch;
- the rotor;
- the pneumatic wrench;
- the receiving walkways;
- the pneumatic compressor;
- the electricity distribution device;
- the circulation system;
- the block for the preparation of the drilling fluid;
- the booster pump;
- the casing and drilling pipes;
- the casing and drilling pipes;
- the drilling bit;
- the hoist tripping system.
The collapsible drilling rigs (large-blocked, and small-blocked) are purposed for the construction of the boreholes with the depth of 2000-10000 metres. The large-blocked drilling rigs are transported on the special non-self-propelled chassis (the machines for the transportation of the heavy loads), the small-blocked drilling rigs are transported on the universal transport (for example, on the automotive, and aeronautical transport). The non-collapsible drilling rigs are sub-divided into the self-propelled and non-self-propelled drilling rigs. The self-propelled drilling rigs are permanently mounted on the transport vehicle (on the automobile, tractor, self-propelled drilling foundation, drilling ship), which ensures the movement of the drilling rig, while the non-self-propelled drilling rigs are transported on the transport vehicle, which is not having the mover installation (on the sled frame, trailer, non-self-propelled drilling foundation). For the construction of the petroleum and gas boreholes on the swamped territory, and within the water areas, there have been created the drilling rigs for the clustered drilling, and the floating drilling rigs (see the "Marine drilling" article). The drilling rigs for the clustered drilling ensure the possibility for the construction of the great quantity of the boreholes (up to 50 or more) from the single place. In this case, the drilling rig moves itself with the help of the hydraulic cylinders from the mouth of the borehole, which has been constructed, onto the new borehole point along the railway track, or on the rollers, without the disassembly.
According to the type of the energetic supply, the drilling rigs are sub-divided into the installations with the autonomous and centralized energetic supply. In case of the autonomous energetic supply, there may be used as the primary engine of the drilling rig the engines with the internal combustion (petrol-powered, diesel, gas turbine), or the diesel-generator aggregates for the electric energy. The centralized energetic supply is provided from the industrial electric grid networks. The total power of the drilling rigs during the construction of the boreholes with the small depth (up to 2000 metres) reaches 800 kilowatts, with the intermediate depth (up to 4500 metres) reaches 800-2000 kilowatts, of the deep and ultra-deep boreholes (more than 4500 metres) is up to 5000 kilowatts.
Depending on the length and diameter of the shaft, and on the type of the drilling, there may belong to the drilling rigs the following assemblies: the drilling built structures (the drilling derrick, the foundation, and the shelter); the drilling mechanisms (the drilling draw-works winch, with the block and tackle system, or the hoist, the rotational or rotational-advancing mechanism); the energetic equipment (the engines of the internal combustion, the diesel-generating station, the converters of the energy, the electric motors, and the hydraulic motors); the equipment for the work with the liquid, gas-liquid, and gaseous cleaning agents (the drilling pump, the compressor, the tank, the machines and mechanisms for the preparation, cleaning, and processing of the drilling agents, the pipelines, the hoses, and the swivel); the equipment and the drilling tools for the mechanization of the tripping operations (the wrenches, the wedged grips, the elevators, and the spiders); the blowout prevention equipment; the system for the control of the drilling rigs; the monitoring-measuring system.
The monitoring-measuring system comprises the sensors, which are installed within the places for the measurement of the parameters, the deep channel for the communications (electric or hydraulic), and the secondary instruments, which are situated within the place, which is convenient for the observation. They use the systems for the surface monitoring, and the deep measuring systems. For the surface monitoring, there are used the measuring systems for the individual parameters (the indicators of the weight, the instruments for the measuring of the consumption of the washing liquid), and the integrated systems, namely, the combination of the sensors, and the block of the indicating and self-recording secondary instruments (the control boards for the monitoring of the processes of the drilling). There belong to the structure of the control board the blocks with the pointers and registering instruments, the sensor for the weight on the hook, the sensor for the pressure of the washing liquid, the converting block of the instrument for the measuring of the consumption, the sensor for the advancing of the tools, the separate instrument for the measuring of the quantity of the revolutions of the rotor, and the distributing block. The borehole measuring systems (the turbo tachometers, the instruments for the measuring of the axial load onto the drilling bit, and the inclinometers) are purposed for the monitoring within the downhole of the borehole during the process of the drilling. They possess the stability against the strikes, vibrations, high temperature, pressure, and impact of the corrosive environment.
The major parameters, which are monitored during the process of the drilling, are the load on the hook, the torque on the rotor, the frequency of the rotation of the rotor, the mechanical speeds of the drilling, the pressure and consumption of the washing liquid, the advancing of the tools, the load onto the drilling bit. The quantity of the parameters, which are monitored, changes, and is increasing with the depth of the drilling, and with the power of the drilling rig (for each type of the drilling rig, the combination of the parameters, which are monitored, is determined). About the structure of the drilling rig for the drilling of the mine shafts, see within the "Drilling penetration of vertical mine shafts" article.
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