Clauses

Letter "A"

All-Union Correspondence Polytechnic Institute

ALL-UNION CORRESPONDENCE POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE of the Ministry of the Higher and Secondary Special Education of the USSR is situated within the Moscow city; the institute is the teaching-methodological centre for the correspondence education.

Ascending development

ASCENDING DEVELOPMENT is the procedure for the conducting of the underground mining works, in case of which there is processed primarily the lowest seam of the stratigraphic suite, the layer of the seam, or the level (tier), later the above-lying seam, and so on.

Aerial separator

AERIAL SEPARATOR is the device for the aerial classification.

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Letter "B"

Bismuth ores

BISMUTH ORES are the natural mineral formations, which are containing bismuth in such quantities, with which there is economically expedient its extraction using the modern methods for the production.

Blowout of petroleum and gas

BLOWOUT OF PETROLEUM AND GAS is the sudden spontaneous outflowing of the petroleum and (or) gas from the borehole during the process of the drilling.

Bulk-loading kerf machine

BULK-LOADING KERF MACHINE is the mining machine, which is purposed for the creation of the kerf (kerf slot) within the seam of the coal, and for the subsequent mechanical loading of the coal, which has been broken from the massif, onto the stope conveyor.

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Letter "C"

Country rock

COUNTRY ROCK is the rock, within which there is enclosed the ore deposition, vein, or other geological body with the useful mineral.

Crushed stone drift

CRUSHED STONE DRIFT is the underground mine working, which is conducted for the obtainment of the stowing material (rock) from the roof (prevalently) or soil of the layer of the useful minerals within the goaf space of the longwall stope.

Crushed stone wall

CRUSHED STONE WALL is the stowing massif, which is erected in the form of the strip within the mine working.

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Letter "D"

Delivery of the ore using the explosion

DELIVERY OF THE ORE USING THE EXPLOSION is the movement of the ore within the limits of the excavation place of the underground mine to the receiving horizon on the account of the energy of the explosion.

Discharge funnel

DISCHARGE FUNNEL is the sequential position of the contact surface between the useful mineral and waste rock during the release of the useful minerals from the certain container under the action of the force of the gravity.

Drainage basin

DRAINAGE BASIN, see the "Drainage area" article.

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Letter "E"

Eastern Institute for the safety of the works within the mining industry

EASTERN INSTITUTE FOR THE SAFETY OF THE WORKS WITHIN THE MINING INDUSTRY of the Ministry of the Coal Industry of the USSR is situated within the Kemerovo city (since the 1958).

Eastern Saharan artesian basin

EASTERN SAHARAN ARTESIAN BASIN, the Libyan-Egyptian artesian basin, is situated within the north-eastern part of Africa.

Eastern Kounrad deposit

EASTERN KOUNRAD MOLYBDENUM DEPOSIT is situated within the northern Balkhash region, within the Dzhezkazgan province of the Kazakh SSR.

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Letter "F"

Foaming agents

FOAMING AGENTS, FOAMERS are the reagents, which are imparting to the liquid the ability for the forming of the foam.

Flammability

FLAMMABILITY of the explosive substances is the sensitivity of the explosive substances to the ray of fire of the safety fuse.

Frontal mining apparatus

FRONTAL MINING APPARATUS is the combination of the mining machines and mechanisms, which are structurally and kinematically linked together by all the parameters...

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Letter "G"

Geological age

GEOLOGICAL AGE is the time, which has elapsed since the certain geological event (the accumulation of the layers of the rocks, the advancement of the sea, the effusion of the ancient lavas, the introduction of the intrusions, and so on).

Great Dyke

GREAT DYKE is the intrusive massif within Zimbabwe with the deposits of the chromium ores, which are the greatest deposits in terms of the reserves.

Gravity variometer

GRAVITY VARIOMETER is the instrument for the measurement of the second derivatives of the potential of the gravitational field, which are characterizing the variation of the force of gravity along the horizontal direction...

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Letter "H"

Hungary

HUNGARY is the country within the Central Europe. Hungary borders Czechoslovakia to the north, USSR and Romania to the east, Yugoslavia to the south, and Austria to the west.

Humidity

HUMIDITY of the rocks is the degree of the saturation with the water (of the film, capillary, and gravitational types) of the pores, cracks, and other voids of the rocks under the natural conditions.

Hanging pipelines

HANGING PIPELINES is the type of the above-ground overpasses for the pipelines, within which the pipes are tied to the bearing elements, namely, to the ropes, cable-stays, chains, and so on; these pipelines are constructed for the crossing of the gorges, water, and other obstacles...

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Letter "I"

Institute of Volcanology

INSTITUTE OF VOLCANOLOGY of the Far Eastern Scientific Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR has been organized during the 1963 within the Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky city on the basis of the Laboratory of Volcanology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (Moscow).

Intra-layer combustion

INTRA-LAYER COMBUSTION is the method for the development of the petroleum fields, which is based on the exothermic oxidation reactions of the hydrocarbons, mainly of the petroleum within the layer, using the oxidant (usually using the oxygen of the air), which is injected into the layer...

Intra-permafrost waters

INTRA-PERMAFROST WATERS are the underground gravitational waters of the cryolitic zone, which are contained within the stratum of the permafrost rocks as the lenses, horizons, and other bodies with various shapes and sizes.

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Letter "K"

Kerf machine

KERF MACHINE is the mining machine, which is purposed for the creation of the kerf (slot) within the massif of the useful minerals (coal, petroleum shale, salt, coquina, tuff, and so on) with the purpose of the facilitation of its subsequent excavation.

Kerf

KERF is the artificial cavity within the coal or rock massif, which is created for the facilitation of its subsequent destruction during the excavation of the useful minerals, or during the conducting of the mine workings.

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Letter "L"

Lake Superior

LAKE SUPERIOR is the copper ore region within the USA, within the Michigan state.

Lake Superior iron ore basin

LAKE SUPERIOR IRON ORE BASIN is one of the largest iron ore basins within the world, which is situated at the western end of the Lake Superior, with its largest part at the north of the USA (the Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan states), and the small part is within the limits of Canada (the Ontario province).

Large Saharan artesian basin

LARGE SAHARAN ARTESIAN BASIN, Algerian-Tunisian artesian basin is situated mostly on the territory of Algeria, covers also the southern half of Tunisia, and partly Libya.

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Letter "M"

Moisture content of petroleum

MOISTURE CONTENT OF PETROLEUM is the degree of the water flooding of the petroleum. This moisture content depends mainly on the voluminous consumptions of the formation water, which is arriving together with the petroleum onto the surface, and on the density of this water, and also on the viscosity and density of the petroleum.

Moisture meter

MOISTURE METER is the device for the measurement of the humidity of the gases, liquids, and solid (including loose) bodies.

Moisture capacity

MOISTURE CAPACITY OF ROCKS is the ability of the rocks to retain the water within the voids (pores, cavities, and cracks).

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Letter "N"

Native bismuth

NATIVE BISMUTH is the mineral of the class of the native elements, Bi. There are noted the non-significant impurities of Sb, Pb, Te, As, S, and so on. The native bismuth crystallizes into the trigonal crystal system.

Natural tungstates

NATURAL TUNGSTATES is the class of the minerals, the salts of the tungstic acid H2WO4.

Natural vanadates

NATURAL VANADATES is the group of the minerals, which are representing by themselves the different, according to composition and complexity, salts of the H3(VO4) orthovanadic acid.

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Letter "O"

Outburst-dangerous rocks

OUTBURST-DANGEROUS ROCKS are the places within the massifs of the rock, which are dangerous because of the sudden outbursts.

Outburst danger

OUTBURST DANGER is the probability of the emergence of the outbursts of mainly coal or rock and gas (less often of the certain sandstones from the coal-bearing depositions, and of the potassium salts) during the conducting of the mining works...

Opposite stopes

OPPOSITE STOPES is the method for the conducting of the underground mine working simultaneously from the two sides, with the subsequent rendezvous of the stopes in the intended point.

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Letter "P"

Peat tedder

PEAT TEDDER is the trailed device for the tedding of the milled peat crumbs, which are located within the loose layer. The first peat tedder has been created within the USSR during the 1931-32.

Phenocrysts

PHENOCRYSTS are the relatively large crystals of the minerals, which are prominent within the mass of the magmatic rocks because of their size and shape.

Paramilitary mining rescue units

PARAMILITARY MINING RESCUE UNITS are the specialized formations, which are created at the mining-extracting enterprises within the USSR for the rescue of the people during the accidents, for the prevention of the accidents, and for the liquidation of the accidents.

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Letter "R"

Rotational-percussive drilling

ROTATIONAL-PERCUSSIVE DRILLING is the process of the breaking of the rock during the drilling of the blastholes and boreholes, using the permanently rotating drilling tool, which is pressed into the stope with the great axial thrust...

Rotational drilling

ROTATIONAL DRILLING is the method for the construction of the boreholes, using the destruction of the rock on the account of the rotation of the rock-breaking tool (drilling bit, drilling crown), which is pressed into the bottomhole.

Rising mine working

RISING MINE WORKING is the vertical or steeply inclined mine working, which does not have the immediate exit onto the Earth's surface, and which is serving for the bypassing of the useful minerals or waste rock...

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Letter "S"

Secondary minerals

SECONDARY MINERALS are the minerals, which have been formed as the result of the chemical weathering, or of the replacement of the minerals, which have been isolated earlier.

Secondary explosive substances

SECONDARY EXPLOSIVE SUBSTANCES, see within the "Brisant explosive substances" article.

Secondary crushing

SECONDARY CRUSHING is the destruction of the oversized pieces within the mining mass during the construction, and during the opencast or underground development of the deposits.

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Letter "T"

Temporary disability

TEMPORARY DISABILITY is, according to the Soviet legislation, the temporary loss of the ability for the performance of the job duties (till the recovery of this ability, or till the determination of the disability).

Temporary lining

TEMPORARY LINING is the mining lining within the capital and preparatory underground mine workings, which is installed within their stope part during the period of the penetration.

Tedding

TEDDING is the technological operation, which is including the overturning of the milled peat crumbs, which are located within the thin layer, for the acceleration of their drying.

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Letter "U"

United Kingdom

UNITED KINGDOM, is the country within the Western Europe, on the British Isles.

Unsealing of deposit

UNSEALING OF DEPOSIT is the conducting of the mine workings (trenches, underground mine shafts, drilled boreholes, and others), which are opening the access from the surface to the depositions of the useful minerals within the Earth's bowels.

Upper mantle

UPPER MANTLE is the geosphere, which is situated between the Earth's crust and the lower mantle of the Earth.

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Letter "V"

Volcanoes

VOLCANOES are the geological formations, which emerge above the channels and cracks within the Earth's crust, through which the lavas, hot gases, and debris of the rock are erupted from the deep magmatic sources onto the Earth's surface.

Volcanology

VOLCANOLOGY is the science, which is studying the processes and causes of the forming of the volcanoes.

Volcanoclastic rocks

VOLCANOCLASTIC ROCKS are the rocks, which are representing by themselves the mixture of the clumps and debris (from the very large sizes to the smallest sizes) of the loose, compacted...

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Letter "W"

Worldwide Mining Congress

WORLDWIDE MINING CONGRESS is the international non-governmental organization, which unifies the specialists and scientists from the different countries, which are working within the field of the mastering of the deposits of the solid useful minerals.

Wulfenite

WULFENITE is the mineral of the class of the molybdates, namely, Pb(MoO)4.

Witherite

WITHERITE is the mineral of the class of carbonates, BaCO3. Witherite sometimes contains the impurities of Sr (up to 1.5%), Ca, less often Mg, Cu (< 1%).

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Letter "Z"

Zone of the water-conducting cracks

ZONE OF THE WATER-CONDUCTING CRACKS is the disturbed massif of the rock, through the cracks of which the underground and superficial waters arrive into the mine workings.

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