Bulldozer waste dump
BULLDOZER WASTE DUMP (EN: bulldozer blade; DE: Planierkippe; FR: lame de bulldozer; ES: hoja topadora; RU: бульдозерный отвал) is the waste dump, the major machine for mechanization at which is the bulldozer; they transport the overburden rocks at the bulldozer waste dump by the automotive or railway transport.
In case of the automotive transport, the overburden rocks at the bulldozer waste dump are stored by the peripheral (most distributed) and areal methods. In the first case, the rock, which has been delivered onto the bulldozer waste dump, is unloaded under the slope, or as near to the slope as possible, and then is relocated to the edge of the slope by the bulldozer. In the second case, the soft rocks are sequentially unloaded throughout the entire area of the bulldozer waste dump, or throughout the largest part of this waste dump, are leveled by the bulldozer, and are compacted by the road roller. The movement of the automotive dump trucks onto the bulldozer waste dump is performed according to the fan-shaped (the Figure # 1, a) or to the ring-shaped (the Figure # 1, b) schemes.
The first scheme is used for the storage of the soft rocks, the second scheme is used for the storage of the intermediate and hard rocks. The unloading of the automotive dump trucks, and the leveling of the bulldozer waste dump, may be combined within the single place, or may be performed alternately within two or several places. The first form for the organization of the works is preferable for the upland waste dumps, in case of the large volume of the leveling works, and in case of the dumping of the waste dumps onto the unstable foundation. The length of the combined place at the upland bulldozer waste dumps is 20-60 metres, and at the flatland waste dumps is 50-80 metres; the length of the non-combined place is 200-250 metres. The height of the tier of the flatland bulldozer waste dump is usually not more than 40 metres, the height of the upland waste dump under the favourable conditions is 150 metres or more. The coefficient of the filling for each tier, starting with the second tier, amounts to 0.5-0.7. The receiving capacity of the bulldozer waste dump is up to 12 million cubic metres per year, the productivity of the labour of the worker at the dumping works is 350-450 cubic metres per shift. The expenditures for the storage of the rocks in case of the peripheral method, in comparison with the areal method, are by 1.5-2.5 times less. In case of the railway transport (the Figure # 2), there is used the terminal, frontal, or combined (most productive) stacking of the rocks.
The receiving capacity of the waste dump terminal, in case of the combined method for the stacking of the rocks, with the usage of the bulldozers with the power of 220 kilowatts (300 horse powers), reaches 3.5 millions cubic metres per year. The lower sub-tier of the bulldozer waste dump is dumped from the entrance to the end of the terminal; the dumping of the upper sub-tier, and the re-laying of the railway track, are performed along the opposite direction. The height of the upper sub-tier is chosen according to the calculation, that the rock, which has been unloaded onto the receiving place, would be placed below the railway track (for example, in case of the usage of the 2VS-105 dumpcars, with the load lifting capacity of 105 tonnes, the height is equal to 2 metres). The height of the lower sub-tier is determined in each case according to the condition for the ensuring the stable slope of the bulldozer waste dump. The greatest value of this height under the same conditions is somewhat less, than in case of the usage of the automotive transport. They assume the length of the waste dump terminal as equal to 1200-1500 metres, and the width of the waste dump stope as less than 70 metres.
|A a||B b||C c||D d||E e||F f|
|G g||H h||I i||J j||K k||L l|
|M m||N n||O o||P p||Q q||R r|
|S s||T t||U u||V v||W w||X x|
|Y y||Z z|