Brazil

(Map) BrazilBRAZIL (PT: Brasil; RU: Бразилия), Federative Republic of Brazil (PT: Republica Federative do Brasil; RU: Федеративная Республика Бразилия) is the country within the South America, which is occupying the eastern and central parts of the mainland. It borders Guiana (French), Suriname, Guyana, Venezuela to the north, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia to the west, Paraguay, Argentina, Uruguay to the south-west. At the east, the country is washed by the Atlantic ocean. The area is 8512 thousand square kilometres. The population is approximately 123 million persons (during the 1980, estimate). The capital city is Brasilia. According to the administrative sense, the country is divided into 23 states, 3 territories, and 1 federal (capital city) district. The official language is Portuguese. The monetary unit is Cruzeiro. Brazil belongs to the Organization of American States (OAS), Latin American Economic System (SELA), Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE), Inter-American Commission for Atomic Energy (IACAE), and so on.

General characteristic of the economy. Brazil holds (1980) the 1st place within the region in GDP (200.2 billion dollars according to 1980 prices, or 38.5% of GDP within the Latin America), and the 8th place in terms of GDP per capita (1664 dollars per person, 1980). Within the structure of GDP, there is accounted for (%): agriculture, hunting and fishing, 7.4; mining-extracting industry, approximately 1; processing industry, 28.7; electrical energy industry, approximately 3; construction, 6.9; transport and communications, approximately 6; commerce, 15.3; finances, 13.8; and others, approximately 18. Within the processing industry, there belongs the substantial role to the mechanical engineering (mainly of the transport type) and metal processing (25%), to the chemical industry (20%) and metallurgy (15%). During the 1980, Brazil produced 1.9% of the industrial produce of the capitalistic countries.

Within the economy of the country, there occupy noticeable positions the transnational corporations (prevalently American), especially within the automotive engineering, chemical industry, production of engines and equipment. The total quantity of investments from the foreign monopolies into the economy of Brazil (1979) was estimated at 16.6 billion dollars, including (%): USA at 45, West Germany at 23, Japan at 10. The governmental sector covers railway transport, communications, extraction and significant part of processing of petroleum, large part of the extraction of the iron ore, and of the mineral coal, production of the electrical energy, and of the ferrous metals, and so on. Within the structure of the fuel-energetical balance (1980), 40% were accounted for petroleum and gas, 27% for vegetable fuel, 27% for hydraulic energy, 5% for mineral coal, 1% for other sources. The total installed power capacity of the electrical energy plants (1980) is 26 megawatts (of them, 90% is accounted for the hydraulic plants, and 10% for the heat plants), the production of the electrical energy is 141 billion kilowatt-hours (1981), including 90.5%, which is produced at the hydraulic plants, and 9.5%, which is produced at the heat plants. According to the installed power capacity, and to the total production of electrical energy, Brazil holds (1980) the 1st place within the Latin America; and according to the consumption of electrical energy per capita, Brazil holds the 4th place (after Venezuela, Argentina, and Uruguay). The length of the railways is 30 thousand kilometres, including 2.6 thousand kilometres of the electrified railways (1979). The length of the automotive roads is approximately 1397.1 thousand kilometres, including 82.4 thousand kilometres of the roads with hard pavement (1979). The largest sea ports are: Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Porto Alegre, Tubarão, Vitoria, Ubu, Sepetiba, and others. The latter four ports specialize prevalently in the export of the iron ore. San Sebastian is the most important port for the import of petroleum; there have been laid the petroleum pipelines from this port to the petroleum processing plants within the country.

Nature. Within the relief of the country, at the north, there is prominent the Amazonian lowland, which, within its northern part, transitions into the hilly plains of the southern part of the Guianian highland (the altitude is 500-700 metres), which are framed along the border of the country by the steep cliffs of the Serra Imeri (the Neblina mountain, 3014 metres), Serra Parima, and Serra Pacaraima mountains. There occupies almost entire remaining territory of the country the Brazilian highland (the altitude is from 250-300 to 800-900 metres), which steeply terminates into the narrow coastal Atlantic lowland. At the east, the edge massifs (Serra do Mar and others) reach the altitude of 2890 metres. The territory of Brazil is situated within the different geographical zones, namely, from equatorial at the north-west, to subtropical at the south-east. The average temperature of January is 23-29 degrees Celsius, of July is 16-24 degrees Celsius. The quantity of the atmospheric precipitation is from 3000 millimetres per year within the Amazonian lowland to 500 millimetres per year at the north-east of the Brazilian highland. The most large rivers are the Amazon, San Francisco, Parana, Uruguay, Paraguay. The Amazon river with tributaries is navigable during the entire year, the rivers of the Brazilian highland have rapids, sharp fluctuations of the level, and are navigable along the short segments. Forests cover 58% of the territory of the country.

Geological structure. Brazil is situated within the limits of the pre-Cambrian South American craton. The ancient (early pre-Cambrian) basement is formed by the thick complex of the rocks, which are diverse in composition and grade of metamorphism, and are riddled by granitoids and other intrusions. The pre-Cambrian rocks form the series of uplifts, the largest of them are the Guianian and Western Brazilian shields.

The sedimentary cover of the craton is represented by the thick complex of the rocks of various ages. The oldest rock is the Lower Proterozoic series of Roraima (the red-coloured sandstones and conglomerates with the tabular intrusions of the basic rocks), which covers the elevated places of the Guianian highland in the cloak-alike manner. The analogous formations may be found also within the Western Brazilian shield.

Along the periphery of the Guianian highland and Western Brazilian shield, there stretch the belts of the folded Late pre-Cambrian rocks of the geosynclinal type, among which there are developed the massifs of the early Cambrian consolidation, which are formed by the rocks, which are similar in composition and age with the rocks of the basement of the Guianian and Western Brazilian shields. The meridional zone of subsidences (the Maranhao, Parana depressions, and more ancient, namely, San Francisco depression) separates the Western Brazilian shield from the Eastern Brazilian shield, within the foundation of which there lies the Minas iron ore series with the famous itabirites (the local name for jaspilites), the Minas Gerais state. During the conclusive stage of the development of the Eastern Brazilian system (the end of the pre-Cambrian - the Cambrian), along the faults of the latitudinal or north-eastern strike, there has occured the introduction of granites and pegmatites with the rich rare-metallic (beryllium, tantalum, and others) mineralization.

Within the limits of the syneclises (Amazonian, and Parnaíba at the north-east; San Francisco, and Paraná at the south), the early pre-Cambrian crystalline basement is submerged into the great depth, and is overlain by the thick strata of sedimentary rocks, starting since the Proterozoic age. Along the eastern and north-eastern coast, there stretches the system of the young peripheral troughs-grabens (San Luis, Bahia, and others), which are filled by the sedimentary Cretaceous and Cenozoic rocks, with the thickness of 2-4 thousand metres. Within this region, and within the syneclises (Amazonian, and Parnaíba), during the Jurassic and early Cretaceous time, there have manifested themselves the trap volcanism, and intrusive activity, in the form of the thick plateau-basalts of the Parana, and in the form of the sills and dikes.

(Table # 1) The reserves of the major useful minerals (1980)
Useful mineral General reserves The content of the useful component, %
Petroleum (1), million tonnes 186 -
Natural gas (1), billion cubic metres 53 -
Uranium ores (2), thousand tonnes 95 0.07-0.12
Iron ores, billion tonnes 48 40-66
Manganese ores, million tonnes 100 35-45
Chromite ores, million tonnes 10 40
Nickel ores (3), thousand tonnes 2000 1.1-2.2
Tungsten ores (2), thousand tonnes 50 0.9-1.5
Bauxites, million tonnes 2250 50
Copper ores (3), thousand tonnes 2000 0.5-5.0
Lead ores (3), thousand tonnes 650 2.1-2.7
Zinc ores (3), thousand tonnes 2200 2.9-3.5
Tin ores (3), thousand tonnes 400 0.2-4.0
Antimony ores (3), thousand tonnes 20 1-5
Beryllium ores (2), thousand tonnes 420 -
Niobium ores (2), thousand tonnes 14000 -
Tantalum ores (2), thousand tonnes 9.5 -
Lithium ores (2), thousand tonnes 500 -
Barite, thousand tonnes 2700 63.0
Phosphates, million tonnes 1900 10-15
Asbestos, thousand tonnes 3584 -
(1) Proven (industrial) reserves, (2) In terms of oxide, (3) In terms of metal

Useful minerals. Brazil holds (1978) the 1st place among the industrially developed capitalistic and developing countries in the reserves of the iron, beryllium, and niobium ores, and of the rock crystal, the 2nd place in the reserves of the bituminous shales, the 3rd place in the reserves of bauxites, and the 4th place in the reserves of the ores of the rare earth elements. There exist the deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, ores of uranium, nickel, tin, tungsten, copper, lead, zinc, lithium, tantalum, phosphates, barite, and so on (the table # 1).

The reserves of petroleum and natural gas within Brazil are not large. There have been discovered 130 fields of petroleum and 16 fields of gas (including 114 fields at the north-east). The largest fields of petroleum are the Don Juan (the initial reserves are 38 million tonnes), Agua Grande (57 million tonnes), and Arakas (40 million tonnes) within the Bahia (the Rekonkavu basins), Karmopolis (159 million tonnes), and Sirizinho (33 million tonnes) states, within the Sergipe and Alagoas, Namoradu (55 million tonnes) states, on the coastal shelf of the Espirito Santo state within the Eastern Brazilian petroleum and gas basin. The major reserves of gas are associated with associated gas of the petroleum fields, the gas fields proper are small, the most large field has been discovered within the Middle Amazonian basin (the Juruá field, within the Amazonas state).

The bituminous shales are confined to the Permian Irati formation, which is represented by the argillite and limestone facies, with the intrusions of basalt and diabase. They are distributed within the Paraná (the São Mateus do Sul deposit) and Rio Grande do Sul (the San Gabriel and Don Pedrito deposits) states.

The reserves of mineral coal within Brazil are not large. The deposits, which are profitable for development, are located within the Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina states (the total reserves are 2 billion tonnes, 25% of the reserves are the coking coals). There is largest the Upper Amazonian brown coal basin, which is yet badly explored, and which is filled with the Tertiary depositions with the thickness of more than 2000 metres, which are filling the deep graben within the crystalline basement.

The major deposits of the ores of uranium are concentrated within the Bahia state, at the Serra de Jacobina mountains, together with the gold-bearing conglomerates (the Jacobina deposit). The uranium manifestations of various genesis have been identified also within the Ceará (the Itataya deposit), Minas Gerais (the Araxá deposit), and Goiás (the Amorinopolis deposit) states. The ore manifestations of uranium and thorium have been uncovered at the north-east of the country, at the foothills of the Serra Tumucumaque mountains (along the banks of the Araguari river, to the north of the mouth of the Amazon river).

The reserves of the iron ores amount to approximately 26% of the reserves of the developed capitalistic and developing countries (1980). The major part of the ores is associated with the pre-Cambrian itabirites of the Brazilian craton. The main industrial depositions are concentrated within the Minas Gerais iron ore basin (the iron ore basin) (more than 25 billion tonnes, the largest deposits are Pico di Itabiritu, Timpopeba, Conceição, and others), within the Mato Grosso state (9 billion tonnes, Morru do Urukun deposit), and within the eastern part of the Pará state (14 billion tonnes, Serra dos Carajás deposit).

The largest deposits of the manganese ores are associated with the rocks of the basement. The lenses of the manganese-containing spessartite rocks (gondite, carbonatic rhodonite) have the thickness of 10-30 metres, and the length of 200-1000 metres. The most large deposits are situated on the Amapa federal territory (the Serra do Navio deposit, the reserves are 60 million tonnes, the content of Mn is 46%), within the Mato Grosso state (the Corumba deposit), and within the Minas Gerais state (the Morro da Mina, São Joao del Rey, and other deposits).

According to the reserves of bauxites, Brazil holds the 1st place within the Latin America. The industrial depositions of bauxites are associated with the lateritic crust of weathering. The major resources are concentrated within the drainage basin of the Amazon river within the Pará state (the Trombetas, Paragominas, and other deposits). The significant reserves are known also within the Minas Gerais (the Serra do Mutuka, and Posusje di Caldas deposits), Santa Catarina (the Farina Seca deposit), Bahia (the Correntina deposit), and Espírito Santo (the Moki deposit) states. The ores of tungsten, which are represented by the scheelite skarns, are known at the north-east within the Rio Grande do Norte state (the Breju, Kishaba, and Malyada deposits). Within the southern states, the deposits belong to the veinous quartz-wolframite type (the Inyadisariya deposit within the São Paulo state, the Morro do Caatinga deposit within the Santa Catarina state). The deposits of the nickel ores, which are mostly of the silicate type, are represented by the garnierite ores, which are developed within the serpentinized peridotites; the ore bodies are embedded at the shallow depth, which is permitting to conduct their development by the opencast method (see the "Brazilian nickel-bearing province" article). Approximately 75% of the reserves are located within the Goiás state (the Nickelandia and other deposits). There are known also the deposits within the Minas Gerais state (the Livramento, Santa Cruz, and Santa Maria deposits), and within the Pará state (the Vermelho deposit). There exist several copper ore deposits, there is the largest of them the Caraíba deposit (within the Bahia state).

Within Brazil, there may be counted more than 100 small polymetallic hydrothermal deposits, the largest of which are within the valley of the Ribeira river (the Furnas, and Panelas deposits), and within the Minas Gerais state (the Vazanti, and Parikatu deposits). Within the Rondônia federal territory, within the drainage basin of the right tributaries of the Madeira river, there have been explored the rich tin placers (the Porto Velho, São Lourenço, Carnal, and other deposits). The rare elements (beryllium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, and others) within Brazil may be found prevalently within the complex pegmatite ores, which are confined to the basement. The ore bodies with beryllium (the reserves within the pegmatite deposits are 300 thousand tonnes) are confined prevalently to the Main pegmatite belt of Brazil. The largest deposits are Parelyas, São Tome, Seridosinho. The most known deposit of the non-pegmatite type is the Boa Vista deposit (the reserves are 0.13 million tonnes, the content of BeO is 0.25%), which is associated with the metamorphic crystalline schists, is situated within the Minas Gerais state (at the distance of 300 kilometres to the north of the Rio de Janeiro city).

Brazil possesses significant resources of the niobium-tantalum raw materials, the deposits of which are associated with carbonatites and rare-metallic pegmatites. The carbonatite belt passes along the south-western direction through the Goiás and Minas Gerais states, and includes the large deposits within the Araxá (the reserves of the ore are 300 million tonnes, the content of Nb2O5 is 2.5-3.5%), and Tapira (150 million tonnes, the content of Ta2O5 is 0.4%, the content of Nb2O5 is 3-4%) states. Within Brazil, there are concentrated all zirconium deposits, which are known within the Latin America. The placers and bedrock ores (within the nephelinic syenites) are concentrated on the Poços de Caldas plateau within the Minas Gerais state. There are also the source of zirconium the comprehensive modern ilmenite-zirconium-monazite-rutile placers on the Atlantic coast, and the Araxá pyrochlore deposit. They contain also the rare earth elements. The deposits of gold are concentrated mainly within the Minas Gerais state (approximately 80 deposits, namely, the Morro Velho, Urubu, Raposus, and others), and are associated with the ancient metamorphic rocks. The part of the gold ore deposits (of the placer and bedrock types) is situated at the north-east of the country, within the drainage basin of the Amazon river, within the region of the Serra dos Carajás iron ore deposit (the Babassu, and Maman deposits). There is promising for the searches the region with the distribution of the Late Cambrian gold-bearing and uranium-bearing Canavieiras conglomerates within the Goias state.

There acquire important significance within Brazil the resources of the phosphate ores, which are including three main industrial types: the apatitic ores within the unaltered carbonatites (the Jacupiranga deposit); the secondary apatitic ores within the weathered carbonatites (the Araxá, Tapira, and Catalan deposits); the phosphorite sedimentary deposits within the Bambui series (the Late pre-Cambrian - Early Cambrian), which are widely distributed on the territory of the Minas Gerais, Goiás, and Bahia states. There are especially promising the phosphorite deposits, for example, the Patos de Minas deposit (the reserves are 300 million tonnes).

(Table # 2) The extraction of the major types of mineral raw materials
Mineral raw materials 1913 1920 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980
Petroleum (with condensate), million tonnes - - - less than 0.1 4 8.3 9.5
Natural gas (marketable), billion cubic metres - - - less than 0.1 less than 0.1 1.3 1.3
Coal, million tonnes less than 0.1 0.3 1.3 1.4 1.3 2.4 3
Iron ores, million tonnes 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.7 9.2 40.2 87.4 (5)
Manganese ores, thousand tonnes 112 454 150.4 86.0 438 1202 958
Chromium ores, thousand tonnes - - 4.6 3.2 5.7 27.2 299 (5)
Tungsten ores (1), thousand tonnes - - less than 0.1 0.76 1.87 1.16 2.5
Bauxites, thousand tonnes - - 10 19 121 390 4152
Lead ores (2), thousand tonnes - - - - 11 19 24
Zinc ores (2), thousand tonnes - - - - - 11.0 70
Tin ores (2), thousand tonnes - - - 0.2 1.6 3.8 6.75
Gold ores (3), tonnes 3.4 - 4.7 4.1 3.7 5.6 16.0
Beryllium ores (3), thousand tonnes - - 0.3 2.6 1.7 0.7 1
Niobium ores (4), thousand tonnes - - less than 0.1 less than 0.1 0.1 9.2 17.7
Tantalum ores (1), tonnes - - 240 8 163 272 450
Phosphates, thousand tonnes - - - 28 870 250 900
Asbestos, thousand tonnes - - 0.5 0.8 98.4 376 140
Barite, thousand tonnes - - 0.6 6 40 25 108 (5)
Graphite, thousand tonnes - - - 0.5 1.3 2.5 8
Mica, thousand tonnes - - 1.1 1.8 2 2 2.8 (5)
Diamonds, thousand carats - - - 250 350 190 280
(1) In terms of oxides in concentrate, (2) In terms of metal in concentrate, (3) The production of metal from the ores and concentrates, (4) Concentrate, (5) The data for the 1979

There are located within Brazil the largest within the world deposits of the precious and ornamental stones: rock crystal, jewellery beryl, topaz, tourmaline, amethyst, agate; there are known also the industrial deposits of emerald, diamond, noble opal, and so on. The jewellery beryl, topaz, and tourmaline may be found within the granitic pegmatites, which are widely distributed within the northern part of the Minas Gerais state, and at the south of the Bahia state. There are most known the deposits of the orange-red topazes near the Ouro Preto city, and of the polychrome tourmalines near Golconda, and within other places within the Minas Gerais state. The large deposits of amethyst within the quartzous veins are situated within the Bahia state, within the Vitoria da Conquista region (the Montezuma, Coruja, and other deposits); the deposits of agate exist within the basalts of the Parana Mesozoic trap formation within the Rio Grande do Sul state; the deposits of emerald exist within the apo-hyperbasite micas within the Bahia state (the Carnaiba deposit). The deposits of diamonds, which are associated with the alluvial placers, with ancient conglomerates within the Minas and Lavras series, and with the micaceous rocks (phyllites) of the origin, which has not been identified, are situated mostly within the Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Bahia, and Goias states. The unique crystal-bearing province, which is containing the piezooptic quartz, occupies the vast areas within the Goias, Bahia, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Santa Catarina states; it is represented mainly by the quartz veins within the Proterozoic quartzites of the Minas and Itakolumi series, and also by the placers.

The major deposits of the high-grade sheet mica, namely, of muscovite, are associated with the outcrops of the Archean basement, and form the Brazilian mica-bearing region. Within Brazil, there exist also the deposits of barite (Ilha Grande, Miguel Calmon), potassium salt (Kontiguleba), rock salt (Maceio), fluorite (Salgadinyu, Katunda), magnesite (Iguatu), graphite (Itapaserika, San Fidelis), asbestos (Ipanema), bentonite (Lapsis, Bravo), and so on.

Mining industry. Historical outline. The history of the development of the mining-extracting industry within Brazil may be traced since the start of the 18th century, since the time of the discovery of the first productive gold deposits on the territory of the country. The extraction of gold was determining for the economy during almost entire 18th century, and, during the certain time interval, has pushed away all other business activities. The Minas Gerais state, the major region of the development, supplied 1/2 of the worldwide extraction of gold. During the single century, here have been obtained 1.5 thousand tonnes of metal. The operation of the ore depositions was conducted by the ore-mining enterprises, which have been equipped with the special machinery, and which were manned by the significant staff of workers (mainly of the African slaves), and also by the prospectors. During the 1834, there has been commissioned the underground mine at the most large and rich (10-15 grams per tonne) gold-bearing vein of the Morro Velho deposit within the Minas Gerais state (during the 1981, the depth of the development at the underground mine was approximately 2500 metres). By the end of the 18th century, all the depositions, which were easily accessible for the development, have been exhausted, and, because there was not allocated special attention within the industry to the perfecting of the mining equipment, the gold-extracting industry has gone into decline, which fact has influenced the entire economy of the region in the corresponding manner.

Almost simultaneously with the extraction of gold, there has been started the extraction of the diamonds. Since this time, Brazil has become the first large supplier of the brilliant raw materials, preserving the monopoly within the world for the extraction of these materials during the long time. The territory, on which there was conducted the development (the Minas Gerais state), has been completely isolated from the remaining part of the country (there worked the special laws here), and has got the "Diamond District" name. The identical isolated territories existed within the drainage basins of the Rio Claro and Tilones rivers (the Goias state), within the upper reaches of the Paraguay river (the Mato Grosso state), and so on, but they had lesser industrial significance. During the end of the 18th century, the extraction of the diamonds has gone into decline. During the end of the 19th - start of the 20th centuries, there was conducted within Brazil on the small scale the development of the depositions with zirconium ores (up to the 1st World War of the 1914-18), of coal (the first deposit has been discovered during the 1825), manganese, iron ores, and also of the beryllium ores, bauxites, tungsten, graphite, chromium, nickel, niobium, tantalum, mica. During the 1940, there has been started the extraction of petroleum and natural gas at the depositions, which have been discovered during the 1939 near the Salvador city (within the Bahia state). During the 1953, there has been created the "Petroleo Brasileira" ("Petrobras") governmental petroleum company, which has become one of the largest joint stock corporations within the Latin America.

The mining-extracting industry within Brazil has reached the greatest rise after the 1945. The start of the development of the Serra do Navio deposit has substantially increased the extraction of manganese ores, and the activation during the 50-ies of the works within the region of the so-named iron ore quadrangle within the Minas Gerais state has determined the modern profile of this branch of the industry.

General characteristic. The share of Brazil according to the extraction of the mineral raw materials within the capitalistic world (in terms of the value) is not high, namely, 0.9%. According to the total value of the produce of the mining industry, Brazil held during the 1980 the third place within the Latin America (after Venezuela and Peru). Within the structure of this branch of industry, 26.3% have been accounted for fuel, 58.8% for the ores of the ferrous metals, 4% for the ores of the non-ferrous metals, 6.5% for the ores of the rare and precious metals, and 4.4% for the non-metallic raw materials; 80% of the produce was issued under the control of the governmental sector, 15% under the control of the foreign monopolies, and 5% under the control of the national private entrepreneurs. The most large mining-extracting companies within Brazil are: "Petrobras", "Companhia Vale do Rio Doce" ("CVRD"), "Mineração Morro-Velho" ("MMV"), "Minerações Brasileiras Reunidas" ("MBR"), "Industrie Comercio Mineroes" ("ICM"), "Mineração da Trinidade S. A." ("MTSA").

There are extracted within the country various types of useful minerals (Table # 2). The major produce arrives from the mines of the Minas Gerais state (see the Map), namely, approximately 70% of the national extraction, and 80% of the export. The leading industry of the country is the iron ore industry.

The mining industry within Brazil is at the uplift stage. Having available large resources of useful minerals, Brazil has spent during the 1980 approximately 55% of its export earning onto the import of the mineral raw materials, and of the products, which are obtained from these raw materials, including approximately 50% onto the purchases of petroleum, and 5% onto the purchases of the non-ferrous metals (mainly of copper and aluminium). The country exports in large quantity certain types of produce from the mining production. The major part of the raw materials, which are exported, is directed into the USA, countries of the Western Europe, and Japan.

Petroleum industry. The regular extraction of petroleum on the relatively small scale within Brazil is conducted since the 1940. The internal requirement for the crude petroleum at the expense of the own extraction is satisfied by 15-20%. There conducts the operation of the fields the "Petrobras" governmental company. During the 1980, there were under development more than 40 of the most large fields. Among them, there were the Karmopolis, Miranga, Barasika, Agua Grande, Arakas, Enshova, Namoradu, and other fields. Approximately 30% of the petroleum is extracted from the depth of less than 1 kilometre, 39% of the petroleum is extracted from the depth of more than 2 kilometres; the maximal depth is 3.5 kilometres (the Garopa field). Approximately 40% of the petroleum, which is extracted, is accounted for the coastal shelf zone of the mainland. There have been drilled more than 2.4 thousand wells in total, of them there are productive approximately 1800 wells (1980). There are operated by the fountain method 10% of the drilled wells, and more than 60% of the drilled wells are operated by the mechanized method (mainly by the rod pumps). At 24% of the productive wells, there is used the gas lift method of operation. As the working agent for the artificial maintenance of the reservoir pressure, there is used prevalently the petroleum gas. 25% of the petroleum, which is extracted, has the density of less than 820 kilograms per cubic metre, approximately 30% of the petroleum has the density of more than 880 kilograms per cubic metre.

The petroleum processing industry within Brazil is represented by 12 plants (petroleum processing plants) with the total productive capacity of 60 million tonnes per year (1979). There controls 98% of the productive capacity of the petroleum processing plants the "Petrobras" company, which is having the enterprises within the Paulinia city (the São Paulo state) for 16 million tonnes, Kubatane city (the São Paulo state) for 8.1 million tonnes, Mataripi city (the Bahia state) for 4 million tonnes, Betina city (the Belo Horizonte state) for 3.6 million tonnes, and so on. The import of petroleum during the 1980 has costed for Brazil 10 billion dollars. Approximately 40% of petroleum has been imported from the Saudi Arabia, and 15% has been imported from Venezuela. The "Petrobras" company has its own fleet, which is comprising 55 ships with the displacement of 4 million tonnes (1980). From the major petroleum port of the country, namely, the San Sebastian city, to the petroleum processing plant within the São Paulo city, there have been conducted the petroleum pipelines. Brazil also conducts the exploration for petroleum abroad (Algeria, Libya, Colombia), for which work there has been created during the 1970 the "Petrobras Internacional" ("Braspetro") governmental company.

Iron ore industry. The industrial development of the iron ore within Brazil is conducted since the start of the 20th century. The extraction increased with the most high tempos since the end of the 40-ies (the increase has been caused by the necessity for the expansion of the export of useful minerals). Since the 1978, according to this indicator, Brazil holds the 1st place among the industrially developed capitalistic and developing countries. There are accounted for the iron ore industry more than 50% of the value of all mineral raw materials, which have been extracted within the country, and approximately 10% of the foreign commerce incomes.

The extraction of the ore is conducted by the opencast method. At the end of the 70-ies, there worked within Brazil more than 20 large open pit mines, which were belonging to 8 companies. Among the largest companies, there were "CVRD", "MBR", "MTSA", "Samarco Mineração S. A." ("SMSA"), "Ferteco Mineração S. A." ("FMSA"). The most powerful company, namely, the "CVRD" (more than 65% of the national extraction of ore), has been created during the 1942. Besides the 5 mines, there belong to this company the railways (the length is 550 kilometres) to the Atlantic coast, the Tubarão port, the "Dosegeo" research group within the Belo Horizonte city, and the shipping company (the total displacement of the vessels is approximately 1.5 million tonnes). Besides these properties, "CVRD" participates in the development of the Trombetas large bauxite deposit, in the construction of the alumina and aluminium plants, and so on.

The major deposits, which are being developed (more than 95% of the national extraction) are situated within the so-named iron ore quadrangle, within the region of the Belo Horizonte city (the Minas Gerais state). The ores, which are being extracted, are represented by hematite (66-68% of Fe), and by itabirite (45-50% of Fe). The strength of the ores is low, and permits, as a rule, to work without the drilling-blasting works. The ore bodies with the thickness of often more than 100 metres often emerge onto the surface. The most large open pit mines are: "Kaue" (46 million tonnes per year), "Conceição" (20 million tonnes), "Aguas Klaras" (12 million tonnes), "Germaine" (10 million tonnes), "Perikitu" (8 million tonnes), "Casa de Pedra" (7 million tonnes), "Alegre" (6.5 million tonnes), and others. The system of development is with the transportation of the overburden waste rock. The major stope and transport equipment is the excavators with the buckets with the volume capacity of 4.5-9.1 cubic metres, the dump trucks with the load capacity of up to 170 tonnes, the belt conveyors, and so on. The height of the benches is 10-13 metres. The productivity of the labour of the worker is more than 30 tonnes per shift (1980). Approximately 50% of the ore, which is being extracted, goes to beneficiation, and approximately 20% of the concentrate goes for the production of pellets. The mines with the great productive capacity have the beneficiation plants with the complete cycle of beneficiation (it includes the wet magnetic separation, or the cationic flotation), and the remaining mines have only the installations for the crushing and screening of the ore.

The large part of the iron ore produce (more than 80%) is exported. During the 1980, the export of the ore was more than 70 million tonnes, including approximately 35% into Japan, approximately 25% into the countries of the Western Europe, and approximately 10% into the USA. Practically all the ore, which is extracted by the "CVRD" firm, is directed through the railways, which are belonging to this firm, into the Tubarão port for the export of the ore (the throughput capacity is 75 million tonnes of the ore per year, and in the future, up to 110 million tonnes per year). It is situated near the Vitoria port within the Espirito Santo state, where works the complex for the production of the pellets (more than 10 million tonnes per year). The produce from the enterprises of the "MBR" company arrives through the railways into the Sepetiba port (120 kilometres to the south-west of the Rio de Janeiro city), and from the Germaine deposit of the "SMSA" company, the produce arrives through the underground pipeline (the length is 404 kilometres; the diameter of the pipes is 508 millimetres) into the plant for the production of the pellets (the productive capacity is approximately 5 million tonnes per year) within the Ubu port on the Atlantic coast. The prospects for the further development of the iron ore industry within Brazil are associated with the mastering of the Serra dos Carajás large mining-industrial region. Within this region, there is planned the construction of the mines with the productive capacity of up to 25 million tonnes of the ore per year; along the way with the extraction of the iron ores, there is planned the development of the manganese ores, and so on. There is planned also the extension of the works at the Morro do Urukun other large deposit (by the end of the 80-ies, the volume of the extraction of the ores should increase up to 10 million tonnes per year).

According to the level of extraction of manganese ores, Brazil holds the 5th place among the industrially developed capitalistic and developing countries (10% of extraction during the 1980), and is the leading producer among the countries of the Latin America. There yields approximately 80% of the national extraction the Serra do Navio deposit (the Amapá state), which is controlled by the "Indústria e Comércio de Minerações S. A." company, 51% of the shares of which belong to the Government of Brazil, and 49% of the shares belong to the "Bethlehem Steel Corp." monopoly of the USA. The system of development is with the transportation of the overburden waste rock, the hauling of the ore from the open pit mine is performed by the dump trucks. The productive capacity of the mining enterprise is 2 million tonnes of the ore per year. The extraction during the 1980 has amounted to approximately 1.0 million tonnes of the ore. The major part of the produce of these enterprises is exported through the Macapa port, with which the deposit is connected by the railway (200 kilometres).

The tin extracting industry within Brazil develops with the most rapid tempos since the start of the 60-ies, after the discovery during the 1952 of the tin ore placers on the Rondônia federal territory, within the drainage basin of the Madeira river (to the south and east of the Porto Velho city). During the start of the 80-ies, according to the level of extraction, the country holds the 2nd place within the Latin America (20% of production), and holds the 6th place among the industrially developed capitalistic and developing countries. More than 85% of extraction within the country is accounted for the Rondônia territory (the remaining part is accounted for the Minas Gerais state and other regions), which is the most promising tin-bearing region within the Latin America. The placers contain 1.5 kilograms of Sn per 1 cubic metre of the rock (with the condition of 0.8 kilograms per cubic metre), and are embedded near the Earth's surface. During the start of the 80-ies, there worked within this region more than 30 small open pit mines of the "Cachoeirinha", "Oriente Nôvo", "São Domingos", and other national companies. The major mining-transport equipment is excavators, draglines, and so on, they use also dredges and other hydraulic equipment. There extract approximately 20% of the raw materials the prospectors (the labour is not mechanized). The extraction is limited by the unfavourable economic-geographical conditions (remoteness, arduousness, wilderness of the territory, and so on), which are significantly influencing the costs of production.

Bauxites extracting industry. The extraction of bauxites within Brazil has started during the 30-ies of the 20th century mostly within the Posusje di Caldas region (the Minas Gerais state). Since the end of the 70-ies, Brazil is becoming the major producer of bauxite. During the 1979, there has been commissioned at the Trombetas deposit (the Pará state) the mine of the "Mineração Rio do Norte" company (with 56% of the Brazilian capital), with the initial productive capacity of 3.35 million tonnes per year in terms of the dry bauxite (there is planned the increase to 10 million tonnes in the future). The development is performed by the opencast method.

The removal of the overburden rocks is performed with the help of the draglines (the volume capacity of the bucket is 13 cubic metres). The excavation of the ore is performed by the drilling-blasting method. The ore mass, which has been broken out (it contains 55.9% of alumina, 4.8% of silica, and 9.3% of the iron oxides), is loaded by excavators with the buckets with the volume capacity of 5 cubic metres onto the dump trucks (35 tonnes), is transported into the crushing installation, is transported later by the conveyors into the loading station, and is transported further through the railways (40 kilometres) within the cargo carriages (70 tonnes) into the Trombetas port on the Amazon river. Here the ore is washed, dried to the humidity of 3%, arrives through the conveyor into the warehouse (80 thousand tonnes), where it undergoes the vibratory separation. After this process, the produce is loaded onto the vessels (the speed of the loading is 6 thousand tonnes per hour), which are performing the export transportations. The major part of the produce is exported into the USA, Japan, and countries of the Western Europe.

The extraction of the beryllium ores within Brazil has been started during the 30-ies of the 20th century, and, till the end of the 50-ies, there were the major source for their obtainment the rare-metallic pegmatites, which are containing mainly tantalite, columbite, and uranium minerals. During the development of them, along the way, they obtained also beryl. The mining works were conducted on the small scales, not regularly (depending on the competitive conditions of the worldwide market), often manually. During the 1961, there has been commissioned the open pit mine of the "Standard Berillium Corp." American company at the Boa Vista deposit of the beryl-containing crystalline schists (the Minas Gerais state), which has been discovered during the 1959.

The productive capacity of the open pit mine is more than 2.5 thousand tonnes of concentrate per year (1980), which is containing 12% of the beryllium oxide (the productive capacity of the enterprise is used by only 40%). The share of Brazil during the 1980 accounted for 70% of the extraction of the beryllium raw materials within the industrially developed capitalistic and developing countries (the 1st place). The major part of the produce (1 thousand tonnes of concentrates per year) is exported into the USA.

The extraction of the niobium ores within Brazil has been started during the 30-ies of the 20th century. On the large scales, the extraction is conducted since the 1961, since the moment of commissioning of the Araxá unique carbonatite deposit (the "Araxá" open pit mine), which has been discovered during the 1953, within the Minas Gerais state. The ores of the deposit are complex. They contain pyrochlore (the main mineral), and also apatite, barite, magnesite, the minerals of thorium, of zirconium, of uranium, of the rare earth elements, of manganese, and so on. The content of oxides within the ore (%) is: 3.5 of niobium, 0.3 of the rare earth elements, 0.1-0.14 of thorium; the total reserves of the oxides are 9250, 750, and 300 thousand tonnes respectively. Brazil holds the 1st place among the industrially developed capitalistic and developing countries according to the extraction of the niobium raw materials (1980). There develops the Araxá deposit the "Companhia Brasileira de Metalurgia e Mineração", the 50.5% of the shares of which belong to the Brazilian firms, and the remaining shares belong to the American firms. The beneficiation of the useful minerals is performed at the flotation plant, which is situated near the open pit mine; during the 1980, there have been obtained 17.7 thousand tonnes of concentrate, which is containing more than 60% of the niobium pentoxide, and the small quantity of uranium, of thorium, and of the ores of the rare earth elements. The niobium produce (14 thousand tonnes of concentrates per year) is exported into the USA, and into the countries of the Western Europe. The prospects for the increase of the extraction for the ores of niobium are associated with the commissioning of the Tapira deposit, which is situated near the "Araxá" open pit mine.

According to the extraction of the tantalum raw materials, Brazil also holds one of the first places among the industrially developed capitalistic and developing countries, competing with Canada. The major part of the produce arrives from the small deposits within the Paraiba, Rio Grande do Norte, Minas Gerais, and other states. The export of the tantalum concentrates during the 1980 has amounted to 120 tonnes.

Extraction of diamonds. For the first time within Brazil, the diamonds have been found during the 1725, during the development of the depositions of gold within the Minas Gerais state, and later the diamonds have been uncovered within 11 states of the country. During the start of the 80-ies, the extraction is conducted mostly within the Mato Grosso state (there are also being developed the deposits within the Minas Gerais state) by prospectors, who are sellig the produce mainly illegally. According to estimate, the annual production of the diamonds within Brazil is approximately 280 thousand carats (1980). The content of the jewellery raw materials is approximately 50%. Among the organized major producers of the diamonds, there stands out the "Mineração Tejucana" firm (70 thousand carats per year). During the 1977, the "Societe Generale de Belgique" Belgian company, through its "Sibeka" and "Union Miniere" subsidiaries, has acquired the controlling stake of this firm.

Extraction of the rock crystal. Brazil holds the monopolistic position within the world according to the extraction of the rock crystal, which is used as the piezo-optical quartz. Brazil completely provides the needs of the USA, Japan, West Germany, Great Britain, and certain other countries for this produce. During the 1974, the export of the rock crystal has amounted to 7657 tonnes, including 147 tonnes of the piezooptic quartz (approximately 60 tonnes of the perfect blocks). At the same time, there have been sold 20.4 thousand tonnes of the opaque veinous quartz. The potential capabilities of Brazil are significant. There is conducted within the country the development of the depositions of the precious and ornamental stones. The deposits are being developed by the private companies (sometimes with the attraction of the foreign capital), and by the numerous prospectors. The mineral raw materials, which have been extracted, are mostly exported. Brazil is the leading exporter of the jewellery beryl (aquamarine), topaz, tourmaline, amethyst, and agate.

Extraction of other useful minerals. In the small volumes, there is conducted within the country the extraction of mineral coals (coking and energetical). The major produce (approximately 70%) arrives from the Santa Catarina state (from the coal basin with the same name), where there work 13 small coal companies, and from the Rio Grande do Sul state (more than 25%). The energetical coals are extracted mostly by the small non-mechanized underground mines (the room-and-pillar system of development), the coking coals are extracted by the underground mines and open pit mines with relatively low level of mechanization. The coal from the Santa Catarina basin, which has been mixed with the imported raw materials at the ratio of 1:3, is used for the production of coke at the metallurgical combined enterprise within the Volta Redonda city. There are expanding the scales of development for the depositions of the uranium ores (the Posusje di Caldas region, within the Minas Gerais state), of thorium (the Araxá deposit, within the Minas Gerais state), and of the monazitic sands (the Espírito Santo state). The extraction of monazite during the 1980 has amounted to approximately 1