Borovichi combined enterprise for the production of refractories
BOROVICHI COMBINED ENTERPRISE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF REFRACTORIES named after Vladimir Lenin (RU: Боровичский комбинат огнеупоров) is the enterprise of the Ministry for the ferrous metallurgy of the USSR for the extraction of the refractory raw materials, and for the manufacturing of the fireclay refractory products, within the Novgorod province of the Russian Federation. It has been founded on the base of the Borovichi-Lobytino deposit of the refractory clays (1857). The industrial centre is the Borovichi city. It includes 4 underground mines, open pit mine, 7 workshops for the production of refractory products, and so on.
The deposit is confined to the Carboniferous ledge of the Msta depression at the north-west of the Moscow syneclise. At the lower part of the sand-clayish stratum (the Tula horizon of the Visean stage of the Lower Carboniferous), which is coal-bearing within certain places, clays form tabular depositions and lenticular bodies with the area of up to 5 square kilometres. According to their physical properties, these clays are subdivided into the lithological types: dry (non-plastic, often non-binding), semi-dry (semi-plastic, moderately binding), plastic (viscous, well binding).
The underground development (71% of the extraction) is performed by the long and short retreating clearance stopes (see the Figure).The extraction of the raw materials, and the heading of the mine workings, are performed by the combined cutter-loader machines, the hauling of the rock masses is performed by the electrical locomotive trains. At the opencast works (the depth is up to 40 metres), the overburden rocks of the upper bench are hauled away by the automotive transport into the external and internal dumps, the rocks from the lower benches are moved into the inner dumps by the walking excavators; the excavation is selective, by parallel passes, by the bucket-wheel excavator. The transportation is performed by the dump trucks. There is extracted 950 thousand tonnes of clays per year (1981). The average productivity of the labour of the worker at the underground works is 2.8 tonnes per shift, while at the opencast works, the productivity is 134.5 tonnes per shift. It is the single enterprise within the USSR for the extraction of refractory clays by underground method.
It has been awarded with the Order of the Red Banner of Labour (1939), and during the 1970, there has been assigned to it the name of Vladimir Lenin.
The extraction of the refractory raw materials by passes:
- - the combined cutter-loader machine;
- - the stope conveyor;
- - the wooden roof support for the retreating clearance pass;
- - the reloader within the drift;
- - the metallic arched roof support;
- - the electrical locomotive;
- - the mine carts.
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