Bolivar

BOLIVAR (ES: Bolivar; RU: Боливар) is the group of the petroleum fields within Venezuela (9 in total), including the 3 giant fields, namely: Tijuana, Bachaquero, and Lagunillas.

It belongs to the Maracaibo petroleum-and-gas-bearing basin. The fields have been discovered during the 1917, the operation is performed since the 1922; the initial industrial reserves are 4.3 billion tonnes. The petroleum-bearing zone extends itself along the shores of the Lake Maracaibo for 70 kilometres, mainly under the bottom of the lake. It is situated on the north-eastern edge of the Maracaibo depression.

There have been identified 325 productive horizons within the Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene depositions at the depth of 190-1500 metres. The reservoirs are lithologically, stratigraphically, and tectonically screened. The collectors are porous and porous-cracked. The depositions of the Miocene - Oligocene contain the heavy (945-977 kilograms per cubic metre) high-sulfur (2.12-2.66%) petroleums; the petroleums of the Eocene are characterized by the density of 888 kilograms per cubic metre, and by the content of S of 1.27-1.41%; within the depositions of the Cretaceous and Paleogene, there are the relatively light, low-sulfur petroleums. There are operated approximately 7 thousand drilled wells, of which approximately 700 are gushing, approximately 5 thousand are with the deep pump, and more than 1500 are with the gas lift. The annual extraction is 66.4 million tonnes (1977), the accumulated extraction (1978) is 2769 million tonnes. There work 2 petroleum pipelines and 1 gas pipeline to the Punta Cardon and Amuay cities. It is being developed by the "Petróleos de Venezuela" company.