BLOCK-LAYING MACHINE (EN: erector arm tunnel driver, block-laying machine; DE: Blockverlegen; FR: poseur des packings; ES: colocador de bloques; RU: блокоукладчик) is the installation for the erection of the block roof support within the horizontal mine workings.
During the heading of the workings by the drilling-blasting method, and also by the tunneling shields with the diameter of more than 5.2 metres, they use the autonomous block-laying machines, which are usually mounted on the separate carriage, which is moving along the trough of the roof support or (less often) along the brackets, which are fixated onto this roof support. The non-autonomous block-laying machines are being installed, as a rule, within the tunneling shields with the small and medium diameters. According to the design features, they distinguish the block-laying machines with the lever, circle, conductor, rope, and arc working instruments.
They use the lever block-laying machine (see the Figure, a) within the tunneling shields with the independent rock-loading machines. They install the executive working instrument of the block-laying machine into the horizontal position. Sometimes during the heading of the workings with small cross-section, the lever is being mounted onto the movable platform (see the Figure, b), which rises upward in case of the necessity to pass the loading machine to the stope, but within the workings with the large sizes, the lever is being mounted onto the self-propelled carriage (see the Figure, v), which is moving itself across the cross section of the drift. They use the circular block-laying machines within the mechanized tunneling shields. The block-laying machines of this type represent by themselves the driving ring with the laying mechanism, which is mounted onto the external (see the Figure, g) or internal (see the Figure, d) supports. The advantage of the circular block-laying machines is the availability of the empty space within the centre of the cross-section of the working for the passage of the transport means. The conductor block-laying machines (see the Figure, e) are constructed in the form of the three-tier foldable hinged circular conductor, which is discontinuous at the bottom and is mounted onto the carriage. There are installed along the top of the conductor the guiding rollers, and there are at the bottom 2 mechanisms with the rotating fixating supports for the pushing of the blocks. They move the blocks of the roof support, which they are laying into the trough part of the working, upward along the conductor alternately into one and another sides, freeing the space within the trough for the next block. They use the rope block-laying machines (see the Figure, zh) within the workings, which are conducted by the tunneling shields of the small diameter or by the drilling-blasting method. Such block-laying machines include the template with the casters and the rope winch. They install the first blocks of the roof support at the side of the winch by the rope, which is passed over the lower deflecting drum. Then they pass the rope over the upper drum, and install the blocks at the opposite side of the template. The winch for the lifting of the blocks may be installed at the distance of 10-20 metres from the template onto the independent platform. The arc block-laying machines (they use them less often than other types of the block-laying machines) are constructed in the form of the arcs, which are rotated by the jacks around the hinges (see the Figure, z), and which are installed onto the carriage, which they move along the longitudinal direction by the jacks. They supply the blocks of the roof support on the transport carriages to the arcs from the both sides.
The further perfecting of the block-laying machines is associated: with the development of the cassette constructions, which are laying the assembled rings of the roof support; of the constructions, which are allowing to perform the compression of the rocks by the roof support for the exclusion of the plugging works; with the creation of the installations, within which there are optimally combined the processes of the fixation, excavation, and loading of the rock, and also of the block-laying machines, which are working in automatic mode without the permanent presence of the people on the site.
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