BLOCK-KIT CONSTRUCTION (EN: block construction; DE: Blockbauweise; FR: construction de blocs; ES: construccion de blogues; RU: блочно-комплектное строительство) is the set of the mutually associated technological, technical, and organizational techniques for the creation and usage of the block (BU) devices and block-kit (BKU) devices. The block-kit construction has got the distribution at the facilities of the petroleum and gas industry: during the equipping of the petroleum and gas productive fields, during the construction of the petroleum-pumping, compressor, and gas-distribution stations of the trunk pipelines; of the gas-processing installations, and so on. This method has been used for the first time within the petroleum-extracting regions of Tatarstan (1960-65), it was widely used during the mastering of the deposits within the Western Siberia. The intensive introduction of the block-kit construction is associated with the specificity of the development of the petroleum and gas fields, with the requirements for the continuous growing of the productive capacities during the early stages of development, for the replacement of the equipment according to the changing of the technological parameters, and during the subsequent dismantling.
The usage of the block-kit construction is based on the provision of the supplies onto the construction sites of the completely assembled and tested BU devices and BKU devices, and also of the kits of the related materials, spare parts, fittings, and aggregates, which are being delivered to the construction sites in accordance with the working specification of the facility. The BU devices are constructed in the form of blocks, block-containers, and block-boxes. The block is the technological installation, which is equipped with the monitoring-measuring instruments and the means for the automatic control, with the set of the mounted fittings, pipelines, and so on. It is manufactured according to the transportable design (in mass and dimensions), or with the subsequent partial disassembly for the period of transportation to the facility, which is being constructed. The block-container has, besides the listed elements, the shelters for the performance of the aggregate-unit repair; there belong to the block-box the shelters for the prolonged (or continuous) presence of the people. There are being equipped within such shelters the workshops, operator rooms, auxiliary and household enclosed spaces. During the designing of the BKU devices, there is used the analog simulation.
The organizational base for the block-kit construction is prevalently the industrial production (the industrial plants for the mechanical and instrumental engineering). There is effective the combination of the industrial enterprises, which are conducting the assembly of the BU devices and the kitting of the BKU devices, with the transport, construction, and adjustment organizations. Sometimes there is appropriate the inclusion of the design organization, which is performing the customization of the BKU device from the serial production onto the facility; in individual cases, there is economically justified the production of the BU devices and BKU devices at the bases. The construction process with the usage of the BU devices and BKU devices is limited to the organizational-preparatory period, with the usage of the maximal quantity of the inventory devices, and with the primary construction of the capital systems for the energy, water, and heat supply, and for the communications. The construction includes the installation of the BU devices onto foundations, and the provision of various communications. The significant quantity of the interblock communications is laid onto the ground, the foundations for the BU devices are constructed of the bulk material, or in the form of the separately standing piles (often the BU devices have their own rigid foundation slabs, which are made of the reinforced concrete or are welded). The adjustment works are performed without the disassembly or inspection of the BU device.
The usage of the BU devices significantly decreases the expenditures for the design and production of the equipment at the industrial plants at the expense of the serial production. The transfer of the majority of the construction-installation works from the construction sites into the industrial enterprises (up to 95-99% of the cost is realized outside of the construction sites), and the decreasing of the need for the consumable materials at the facilities (by 5-8 times in comparison with the traditional design solutions), permit to decrease by 3-15 times the duration and laboriousness of the construction-installation works as a whole, and also the cost of the construction (15-25% less).
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