Biruni

Biruni

BIRUNI (EN: Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni; RU: Абу Рейхан Мухаммед ибн Ахмед аль-Бируни) is the Central Asian scientist-polymath. He has first within the Middle East assumed the possibility of the movement of the Earth around the Sun, has determined the length of the circumference of the Earth. He has created the extensive published work, which is containing the description of the relief, hydrography, stages of the geological history of Central Asia, the data about the regime of the ground waters, and about the conditions for the forming of the spring water sources. Based on the findings of the remains from the fishes within the geological stratifications, Biruni has one of the first voiced the idea about the alternation of the continental and marine conditions. He has compiled the extensive summary on the mineralogy, within which there have been described tens of minerals, prevalently precious ones, have been provided the facts about their deposits, about the methods of extraction and processing. There have been started by Biruni the foundations for the scientific classifications of minerals, within which there play the main role the density, which has been determined with great precision, the hardness, and sometimes also the simultaneous location of minerals within deposits.