Biological recultivation

BIOLOGICAL RECULTIVATION (from the Latin "re" (the prefix, which is meaning repetition) and late Latin "cultivo" (processing) * EN: biological recultivation; DE: biologische Rekultivierung; FR: remise en culture biologique; ES: recultivo biologico, reproduccion biologica; RU: биологическая рекультивация) is the complex of the meliorative and agricultural technical measures for the restoration of the fertility and economic value of the lands, which is performed after the technical recultivation. The melioration includes the introduction of lime and gypsum, washing, introduction of sand and clay, and other techniques, which are directed for the improvement of the chemical and physical properties of the recultivation layer. The agricultural techniques prescribe the system for the processing and fertilizing of the loose bulk layer, or of the layer of the rock (of the recultivation layer), for the special alternation of the plants, planting of the woody and bushy plants, and so on. The biological activity of the layer, which is being recultivated, increases itself with the help of the microorganisms, which are being introduced with organic fertilizers. Usually, the biological stage of recultivation proceeds during the time from 4-6 to 10 years.

The composition and amount of work for the biological recultivation is determined according to the dependence on the purpose of recultivation (creation of the agricultural land, forest plantations, decorative vegetation complex), and also on the properties of the rocks, which are composing the surface layer of the lands, which are being recultivated. Within the USSR, the biological recultivation is performed on the basis of the project for recultivation, which is being developed (in association with the project for the mining works) by the design organizations of ministries and departments, which are operating the deposits of the useful minerals, with the involvement (according to the contractual conditions) of the design organizations, which belong to the Ministry for the Agriculture of the USSR, the State Committee for the Forestry of the USSR, and the Ministry for the Fishing of the USSR. The projects for the creation of the garden-park plantations on the territory, which has been disturbed, are included into the general projects for the development of the populated places and peri-urban zones.

The biological recultivation on the lands, which are purposed for the usage within the agriculture and forestry, is performed by the users of the land (governmental farms, collective farms, forestry enterprises, and so on) at the expense of the funds from the mining enterprises, which were conducting the works on these lands. The biological recultivation accounts for up to 25% (0.2-1.5 thousand rubles per 1 hectare) of the total expenditures from the mining enterprise for the recultivation of the lands, which have been disturbed. They account the expenditures for the biological recultivation of the lands onto the cost of the useful mineral, which has been extracted (during the development of the deposits), the cost of the enterprises, buildings, built structures (during the construction of these facilities), or the cost of the works (during the conducting of the geological-explorative and other works).