Bikin (Lower Bikin) deposit

BIKIN (LOWER BIKIN) DEPOSIT OF COAL (RU: Бикинское (Нижнебикинское) месторождение угля) is located within the Primorsky Territory of the Russian Federation, near the Khabarovsk-Vladivostok main railway line. The total area is 260 square kilometres, the area of the explored part is 25 square kilometres. It has been discovered during the 1954, it is being developed by the open pit method since the 1973. The total reserves are 1.3 billion tonnes (up to the depth of 300 metres), including 820 million tonnes of the proven ones. It occupies the western part of the vast Kontrovod-Alchevsk depression within the Mesozoic rocks. The coal-bearing stratum (Oligocene-Miocene) with the thickness of 1800 metres is overlain by the cover of the Quaternary formations (10-50 metres), and by basalts (5-34 metres) within the certain places. Within the upper (Nadezhdinskaya) stratigraphic suite, there are contained 15 groups, and within the lower (Uglovskaya) suite, there are contained 4 groups of the contiguous layers with complicated structure, with the thickness of up to 10 metres (the thickness of the unique layers is up to 20 metres). The carbonaceous depositions form the asymmetric brachysynclines, which are complicated by the additional folds and flexures. The coals are brown, of the B1 and B2 groups. The specific heat of combustion Qsdaf of the coals increases with the increasing of the depth of the embedment of the layers from 26 to 28 megajoules per kilogram. The extraction is 3.9 million tonnes (1980). The major consumer is the Bikin CHP combined heat and electrical power plant.