BANKS, shoals (EN: banks; DE: Banken; FR: bancs; ES: bancos; RU: банки) are
1) The underwater shoals and barriers, which have emerged as the consequence of the deposition of sand or silt by water, or as the result of the life activity of the benthic reef-building organisms, namely, corals, brachiopods, mollusks, algae. The banks may be the elements of the residual relief of the dry land, and within the oceans of the volcanic or coral origin. Depending on the genesis and forming material, they distinguish the sandy, corally, shelly, stony, and other banks. The sandy banks can change their outlines and situation under the influence of the currents. There are named as banks also the clusters of the fossil shells within the sedimentary rocks (biostells).
2) The ore filling of the hose-like shape, which is parallel to the stratification (according to K. I. Bogdanovich, 1913).
3) The large ducts within the delta of the Volga river, which are flowing into the Caspian sea, and are having the continuation on the sea bottom (the term of the local significance).
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