BAIKALIAN FOLDING (RU: Байкальская складчатость) is the era (cycle) of the tectogenesis during the Late pre-Cambrian (approximately 1500-550 million years), which preceded the Caledonian folding during the early Paleozoic. The term has been proposed by N.S.Shatskiy during the 1932. The typical regions of the development of the geosynclinal formations, which have formed themselves as the result of the Baikalian folding (Baikalides), are the folded systems of the Yeniseiskiy ridge, and of the Baikalian mountainous province. The orogenic formations within the listed regions are of the different ages (earlier ones on the Yeniseiskiy ridge), and slightly differentiated.
The specific peculiarities of the provinces of the Baikalian folding within their tectonotype are the duration of the forming, which is corresponding to practically all of the Late Proterozoic, prevalently sedimentary composition of the thick accumulations within the shallow sea, the suppression of the eugeosynclinal zones and the limitation of the creation of granite, which gives way in scale to the similar process during the epoch of the Caledonian folding. The Baikalides form the ancient cores of the numerous Paleozoic folded systems: the Urals, Taimyr, Central Kazakhstan, Northern Tian Shan, significant spaces within the basement of the West Siberian tectonic plate, and so on.
The presence of the ancient massifs of the Baikalian folding, which have been regenerated in varying degrees by the Alpine tectonic movements, has been determined within the Caucasus, Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkey. The structures of the same age as the Baikalides are extensively developed on all the continents. The analogs of the Baikalian folding are the Cadomian (Assintian) within the Western Europe (France), Katangian within Africa, Hadrinian and Brazilian within America, Luinian within Australia. On many tectonic plates, in association with the individual phases of the Baikalian folding, there form themselves the aulacogens, which were filled by the thick sedimentary and sedimentary-volcanogenic depositions, which are laterally associated with the tectonic plate complexes. The Baikalian folding has predetermined the placement of the main structural elements of the Earth during its entire subsequent history. There is associated with the Baikalian folding the mass development of the deposits of the copper sandstones, the manifestation of the hydrothermal deposits of the ores of gold, copper, tin, and tungsten.
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