Letter "A"

Aggressive waters

AGGRESSIVE WATERS are the waters, which are actively entering into the chemical reactions, which break various structures of concrete and metal (for example, the roof supports of the mine workings) and equipment, adversely influencing the flora and fauna of the water bodies as the result of the impact by the salts and gases, which are contained in the water.

AGGREGATE

AGGREGATE (from the Latin word "aggrego" which means "join") is the combination of the mineral grains or their intergrowths, which are forming the rock or its part.

AGOSHKOV Mikhail Ivanovich

AGOSHKOV, Mikhail Ivanovich is the Soviet scientist in the field of the mining science, the academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (since 1981, corresponding member since 1953). He is the member of the CPSU since 1943.

AGGLOMERATION BY SINTERING

AGGLOMERATION BY SINTERING is the process of the thermal agglomeration of the powdery fine ores and concentrates, and the metal containing wastes, by the way of the sintering them together.

AGGLOMERATE

AGGLOMERATE (from the Latin word "agglomero", which means "to join, to accumulate")

AGUILAR

AGUILAR (Aguilar), El Aguilar is the large lead-zinc ore field in Argentina. It includes the lead-zinc skarn deposits: Aguilar (the most prominent, is developed since 1936), Esperanza, Oriente.

AGGRADATION

AGGRADATION of the permafrost layers (from the Latin word "ad", which means "to" and "gradatio" steady increase) is the process of changing the permafrost conditions within the permafrost zone, expressed by the increase of the area of the extent, and of the thickness of the permafrost rocks, and by the lowering of their temperature.

AGGENEYS

AGGENEYS (Aggeneys) is the large polymetallic ore field in the South Africa (Northern Cape Province). It includes the deposits Black Mountain, Broken Hill, Big Syncline. It has been discovered in 1929, the industrial ore content has been established in 1970.

AGATE

AGATE (from the Greek word akhatēs) is the mineral, the variety of the chalcedony with the banded or spotty texture, or with the decorative inclusions.

AGARAK COPPER-MOLYBDENUM COMBINE PLANT

AGARAK COPPER-MOLYBDENUM COMBINE PLANT is the enterprise for the extraction and benefication of the copper-molybdenum ores in the Armenian SSR. It has been built (1949-63) on the basis of the Agarak copper-molybdenum deposit, which has been discovered in 1853. The main industrial centre is the Agarak city.

AGAPOVSKY DEPOSIT

AGAPOVSKY DEPOSIT of the fluxing limestones and dolomites is located in the Agapovsky district of the Chelyabinsk oblast, RSFSR (Russian Federation), 12 kilometres from the Magnitogorsk city.

AGHAJARI

AGHAJARI is the oil with gas condensate field in Iran, 130 kilometres from the Abadan city, one of the largest in the world. It is the part of the Persian Gulf oil and gas basin. It has been discovered in 1938, and is developed since 1945.

AUTONOMOUS SEDIMENT SAMPLER

AUTONOMOUS SEDIMENT SAMPLER is the cable-less device for the probing of the bottom of the deep sea (mainly abyssal) water areas.

AUTOMETAMORPHISM

AUTOMETAMORPHISM (from the Greek words "autos", which means "self", and "metamorphoomai", which means "am transformed", "am transforming") is the combination of the physical and chemical processes, which cause the change of the mineral composition of the rocks under the influence of the solutions and fluids, which are genetically related to the forming rocks.

AUTOMATIC CONTROL

AUTOMATIC CONTROL is the process of the control over the object, during which the operations, which ensure the reaching of the given goal, are carried out by the system, which is functioning without the human intervention in accordance with the given in advance algorithm.

AUTOMATED CONTROL SYSTEM

AUTOMATED CONTROL SYSTEM (in Russian, ASU, Avtomatizirovannaya Sistema Upravleniya) is the combination of the economic-mathematical methods, technical equipment (computers, display devices, communications equipment, etc.), and the organizational structure, which are ensuring the rational control of the complex objects and processes.

AUTOMATON

AUTOMATON (from the Greek word "automaton", which means self-moving) is the device (or the set of the devices) which performs the operations according to the given program without the direct human participation, such as the receiving, storage, transformation, transmission, and usage of the energy, material, or information.

AUTOADHESION

AUTOADHESION (from the Greek word "autos" meaning self and the Latin word "adhaesio" meaning sticking) the sticking of the contact surfaces of the volumes of the different substances, occuring as the result of the intermolecular interactions and the diffusion of the molecules from one volume to another.

AUSTRIA

AUSTRIA (Österreich), the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is the country in the Central Europe. It is bordered by the West Germany and Czechoslovakia to the north, by the Hungary to the east, by Yugoslavia and Italy to the south, by the Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The area is 84.0 thousand kilometres.

AUSTRALIAN PLATFORM

AUSTRALIAN PLATFORM is one of the oldest (Precambrian) tectonically stable structures of the Earth crust, occupying the western and central parts of the continent of Australia and the southern part of the New Guinea.

AULACOGEN

AULACOGEN (from the Greek words aulax (furrow) and genes (generating, generated)) is the intraplatform linear rift zone. The simple and complex aulacogens may be distinguished.

AVICENNA

AVICENNA, see Ibn Sina.

AVERSHIN STEPAN GAVRILOVICH

AVERSHIN, STEPAN GAVRILOVICH is the soviet scientist in the field of the mining science, the academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kirghiz SSR (since 1961).

AUGITE

AUGITE (from the Greek word Auge, meaning shine, for the characteristic luster on the crystal faces and cleavage planes) is the rock-forming mineral, monoclinic pyroxene (clinopyroxene) (Ca, Mg, Fe2 +, Fe3 +, Al, Ti) 2 [(Si, Al) 2O6].

ACCIDENT

ACCIDENT is the sudden total or partial damage to the equipment, the mine workings, the built structures, and the various devices, accompanied by the long-term (typically more than the one working shift) breach of the production process, of the work in the sector or the whole enterprise.

AWALI

AWALI is the oil and gas field in Bahrain, one of the largest in the world. It is the part of the Persian Gulf oil and gas basin. It has been discovered in 1932, and is developed since 1933.

ABU TARTUR

ABU TARTUR is the largest phosphorite deposit in Egypt, in the Western Desert, in the Dakhla oasis. It has been discovered in 1958, the detailed exploration is carried out since 1977 by the "General Organisation for Mining" Egyptian company.

ABU SAFAH

ABU SAFAH is the oil field in the Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, one of the largest in the world. It is situated in the waters of the Persian Gulf, 50 kilometres to the north-east of the port of Ras Tanura

ABSORPTION GAS CLEANING

ABSORPTION GAS CLEANING is the removal of the admixtures of H2S, CO2, organic sulfur compounds, and other compounds from the natural and oil gases (gas mixtures), using the liquid absorbents.

ABSORPTION COLUMN

ABSORPTION COLUMN, the heat and mass transfer apparatus for the separation of the gas mixtures by the selective absorption of the individual components in the liquid absorbent material.

ABSOLUTE AGE

ABSOLUTE AGE, see Radiometric age.

ABSOLUTE ALTITUDE

ABSOLUTE ALTITUDE, altitude is the vertical distance from a point on the surface of the Earth to the average level of the surface of the ocean. In the USSR, the altitude is calculated from the zero of the Kronstadt tide gauge.

ABRAMOVICH Mikhail Vladimirovich

ABRAMOVICH, Mikhail Vladimirovich, is the soviet scientist in the field of the petroleum geology, the academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Azerbaijan SSR (since 1955).

ABRAMOV Fedor Alekseevich

ABRAMOV, Fedor Alekseevich, is the soviet scientist in the field of the mining science, the academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (since 1967).

ABRASION

ABRASION is the process of the mechanical destruction and the removal of the rocks in the coastal zone of the water bodies (oceans, seas, lakes, reservoirs) by the waves and the surf, and by the impact of the clastic material, which is moving and suspended in the water.

Abrasives

ABRASIVES are the substances of the high hardness for the machining of the rocks, minerals, etc.

ABRASIVENESS of the rocks

ABRASIVENESS of the rocks is the ability of the rocks to wear down the solid objects, which are in the contact with them (the parts of the mining machinery, tools, etc.).

ABRASIVE STONE PROCESSING

ABRASIVE STONE PROCESSING is the process of giving the desired shape, size, texture to the materials and products, which are made of the natural stone, with the help of the abrasive tool.

ABLATION

ABLATION in Glaciology (from the Late Latin word ablatio, meaning removal, taking away), the melting of the glaciers, the firn snow, or the snowfield.

ABQAIQ

ABQAIQ (or Aghajari), the oil field in the Saudi Arabia, one of the largest oil fields in the world. Is part of the Persian Gulf oil and gas basin.

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