Letter "A"

Actualistic method (principle of actualism)

ACTUALISTIC METHOD (PRINCIPLE OF ACTUALISM) (from the late Latin word "actualis", which means "modern", "really existing") is the method of the scientific cognition of the geological history of the Earth, of the reconstruction of the processes and environments of the past times, through the usage of the tendencies, which have been uncovered during the study of the modern geological processes.

Aktovrakskoe asbestos deposit

AKTOVRAKSKOE ASBESTOS DEPOSIT see the "Tuvaasbest" article.


ACTINOLITE (from the Greek words "aktis", which means "beam" or "ray", and "lithos", which means "stone") is the rock forming mineral of the amphibole group, the intermediate member of the isomorphic series from the tremolite to the ferro-actinolite, Ca2(Mg, Fe2+)5[Si4O11]2(OH, F)2.


ACTINIUM, Ac (Latin "Actinium") is the radioactive chemical element of the III group of the periodic system by Mendeleev, the atomic number is 89, the most long living isotope is 227Ac.

Activated carbon

ACTIVE CARBON, ACTIVATED CARBON is the porous carbon substance, having the high adsorption properties and hydrophobicity.

Active gas volume

ACTIVE GAS VOLUME is the volume of the gas, which is pumped into the underground gas storage facility and taken from it annually during the normal cyclic operation.

Active gases

ACTIVE GASES are the gaseous components of the mine air, which are changing the diffusion properties of the ventilation flow. The most common active gases are the methane and carbon dioxide.


ACTIVATOR (from the Latin word "activus", which means "active") is the flotation reagent, which is used for the selective amplification of the flotability of the minerals under the conditions of the selective flotation.

Axonometric projections

AXONOMETRIC PROJECTIONS (from the Greek words "axon", which means "axis", and "metreo", which means "measure") are the visual images of the object using its parallel projection on the plane together with the associated system of the three mutually orthogonal coordinates.


AXINITE (from the Greek word "axine", which means "axe"; has been named after the form of the crystals) is the mineral of the subclass of the (cyclosilicates) ring silicates, common boroaluminosilicate of the calcium, iron, and manganese, Ca2 (Fe2+, Mn2+) Al2 [Si4Ol2] • [BO3] (OH).

Acrylic reagents

ACRYLIC REAGENTS in drilling are the synthetic polymers, which are used mainly as the heat and salt resistant decreasers of the yield of the water of the drilling and backfill fluids.

Akramhodzhaev, Abid Muratovich

AKRAMHODZHAEV, Abid Muratovich is the soviet geologist, the academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR (since 1966).


ACCUMULATION (from the Latin word "accumulatio", which means "accumulation") in geology is the accumulation of the mineral substances or organic residues at the bottom of the water bodies and on the surface of the land.


ACCRETION (from the Latin word "accretio", which means "buildup") is the process of the increase of the size of the inorganic body by its buildup at its periphery by the crushed or deformed, melted, dissolved substance from the (environment) surrounding space.

Akkerman deposit

AKKERMAN DEPOSIT is the complex deposit of the iron ores and flux limestone in the Gaysky district of the Orenburg province of the RSFSR. It is developed by the mining administration of the Orsk-Khalilovskiy metallurgical combine.

Akzhalskoe polymetallic deposit

AKZHALSKOE POLYMETALLIC DEPOSIT, see in the article about the Akchatausky mining-beneficiation combine.


AQUANITES are the ammonium (saltpetre) nitrate explosive substances, which are plasticized by the aqueous gel.


Aquamarine (from the Latin phrase "aqua marina" which means "sea water"; has been named after the colour) is the mineral, slightly alkaline variety of beryl of greenish, pale or intense light blue colour.


AKASHAT is the phosphorite deposit in the western Iraq, in the Al Anbar province. The area is about 20 square kilometres, the explored reserves are 432 million tonnes.


ACANTHITE (from the Greek word "akantha", which means "thorn, needle"; is named after the form of the crystals) is the mineral of the class of the sulfides, the polymorph modification of Ag2S, which is stable below 173 degrees Celsius (argentite is stable above this temperature).

Acadian folding

ACADIAN FOLDING, see in the article about the Hercynian folding.

Ai Bunar

"AI BUNAR" is the polymetallic mine of the Copper Age, the largest of the now known mines of this era in Europe, Asia and Africa.


AZURITE (from the French word "azur" which means azure, blue colour; named after the colour) is the mineral of the carbonate class, Cu2Cu[CO3]2(OH)2. It contains 55.3% of copper.

Azov-Kuban Artesian Basin

AZOV-KUBAN ARTESIAN BASIN is located mainly in the Krasnodar territory, and also in the west of the Stavropol territory, and in the southern part of the Rostov province. The area is 110,000 square kilometres.


"AZNEFT" is the productive consortium of the Ministry of the Oil Industry of the USSR on the exploration and development of the oil and gas fields on the land in the Azerbaijan SSR. It is located in the Baku city. It has been created in 1920 ("Azneftekom").


AZIMUTH (from the Arabic word "as-sunut", which is the plural of the word "as-samt", which means "way, direction") is the dihedral angle between the plane of the meridian of the point of the observation and the vertical plane, which is passing in the given direction, which is measured clockwise from the direction to the north (from 0 to 360 degrees).

Azimuth of the hole

AZIMUTH OF THE HOLE is the angle, which is measured clockwise between the certain direction, which is passing through the axis of the well, and the projection of the well on the horizontal plane.

Azizbekov, Shamil Abduragim oglu

AZIZBEKOV, Shamil Abduragim oglu is the soviet geologist, the academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Azerbaijan SSR (since 1945). He is the member of the CPSU since 1942.

Azerbaijan oil economy

"AZERBAIJAN OIL ECONOMY" is the monthly scientific-technical and industrial journal of the "Azneft" and "Kaspmorneft" consortiums and the Ministry of Oil Processing and Petrochemical Industry of the Azerbaijan SSR. It is published in Baku city since 1920.

Azerbaijan Institute of Petroleum Industry

Azerbaijan Institute of Petroleum Industry (AzNIPI-oil) of the Ministry of Petroleum Industry of the USSR is located in Baku city. It has been created in 1929 on the basis of several laboratories of the "Azneft" productive (consortium) amalgamation.

"Azeyskiy" open pit coal mine

"AZEYSKIY" is the open pit coal mine, which has been named after the 50th anniversary of the USSR, and belongs to the "VostSibUgol" productive amalgamation. It is located at 400 kilometres to the north-west from the Irkutsk city, in the Irkutsk coal basin.

ADYSHEV, Musa Mirzapayazovich

ADYSHEV, Musa Mirzapayazovich is the soviet geologist, the academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz SSR (since 1961). He is the member of the CPSU since 1948. He was the deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the Kyrgyz SSR in 1975-79.


ADULARIA (from the name of the Adula mountainous massif in the Switzerland) is the mineral, morphological variation of the low-temperature orthoclase (Or).


ADSORPTION (from the Latin words "ad" which means "at" and "sorbeo" which means "devour") is the intake of the individual components of the gaseous (steamy) or liquid mixtures at the surface of the solid body (or at the volume of its micropores) or liquid.

Adsorptive chromatography


Adsorptive cleaning of the gas

ADSORPTIVE CLEANING OF THE GAS is the selective extraction of the acidic components (H2S, CO2), organosulfur compounds, and other admixtures, by their intake by the adsorbent.

Adsorption column

ADSORPTION COLUMN is the apparatus for the adsorption of one or several components from the mixture of the gases or from the solution by the solid substance, which is called the adsorbent.

Administrative (civil) liability

ADMINISTRATIVE (CIVIL) LIABILITY is the special kind of the legal liability, the cause of the arising of which is the administrative offense (misdemeanor).


ADHESION (from the Latin word "adhaesio", which means "sticking") the linkage of the heterogeneous solid bodies or liquid substances (phases), which are brought into the contact. It may be caused by both the intermolecular interaction and the chemical bond.

Agronomic ores

AGRONOMIC ORES are the natural mineral formations, which are the raw materials for the production of the mineral fertilizers or are used for the improvement of the soil for the agronomic objectives.

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