Letter "A"


ALTITUDE, see the "Absolute altitude" article.

Alpine folding

ALPINE FOLDING is the era of the tectogenesis, which has manifested itself since the end of the Cretaceous, and predominantly during the Cenozoic within the limits of the geosynclinal regions, which developed themselves during the Mesozoic and early Paleogene; it has concluded itself with the emergence of the young mountainous structures, namely, the Alpides.

Alpine folded geosynclinal region

ALPINE FOLDED GEOSYNCLINAL REGION, the Alpine-Himalayan folded geosynclinal region, is the youngest part of the Mediterranean geosynclinal belt, which actively developed itself during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic...


ALMADÉN is the mercury deposit in Spain, the largest in the world, and unique according to the quality of the ores. It is developed since the 1st millennium BC.


ALMANDINE (Late Latin "alamandina", "alabandina", from the name of the "Alabanda" ancient city in the Asia Minor) is the mineral of the group of the garnets, Fe3Al2[SiO4]3.


ALGINITE (from the Latin word "alga", which means "sea grass", "seaweed") is the group of the micro-components of the fossil coals, which have formed themselves as the result of the transformation of the lower plants and plankton.


Albitophyre is the same as keratophyre.

Albitite deposits

ALBITITE DEPOSITS are the stock-shaped and linearly extended masses of the albitized domes and the apophysis of the acidic and alkaline plutonic igneous rocks, and also of the metamorphic rocks, which are containing within their constitution the minerals of the rare metals.


ALBITE (from the Latin word "albus", which means white, according to the colour) is the rock-forming mineral of the feldspars family.

Alymov, Alexander Nikolaevich

ALYMOV, Alexander Nikolaevich is the soviet scientist in the field of the mining science, the academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (since 1973).

Alunite ore

ALUNITE ORE is the natural mineral formation, which comprises mainly the alunite (30-55%), quartz, chalcedony and opal (40-50% total), clay minerals (mainly kaolinite), and the small quantities of iron oxides, ilmenite, zircon, and other substances.


ALUNITE (from the French word "alun", Latin word "alumen" which means "alums"), the alum stone, is the mineral of the sulfates class, KaAl3[SO4]2(OH)6.


ALTYN-TOPKAN is the deposit of the polymetallic ores in the Central Asia, see the "Almalyk Mining-Metallurgical Combined Enterprise" article.

Alto Ligonha

ALTO LIGONHA is the region of the rare-metallic granitic pegmatites in Mozambique in the Zambezia province.


ALTAITE (named after the first discovery at the Altai) is the mineral of the tellurides class, Pb Te.

Altai-Sayan folded region

ALTAI-SAYAN FOLDED REGION is the the region of the Paleozoic folding of the Southern Siberia, which stretches itself near the southern border of the USSR from the basin of the Lake Zaysan at the west to the Lake Baikal at the east.

Almalyk Mining-Metallurgical Combined Enterprise named after V.I.Lenin

ALMALYK MINING-METALLURGICAL COMBINED ENTERPRISE named after V.I.Lenin is the enterprise for the extraction and processing of the copper-molybdenum and lead-zinc ores in the Tashkent province of the Uzbek SSR.


ALLUVIUM, alluvial deposits (from the Latin word "alluvio", which means deposit or alluvium).


ALLOPHANE (from the Greek word "allophanes", appearing as other; is similar to the certain minerals of the copper, as which it has been mistakenly recognized) is the mineral, the aqueous aluminium silicate of the varying composition; mA12O3 • nSiO2 • pH2O.

Adapter (of the aspirator)

ADAPTER is the container for the collection of the dust in the aspirator.


ALLITES (from the English word "aluminium" and the Greek word "lithos" stone)


ALKANES are the acyclic saturated hydrocarbons.

Alice Arm

ALICE ARM is the molybdenum deposit in Canada, in the British Columbia province. The deposit is hydrothermal of the stockwork type. It was explored in 1965-67, and was operated by the open pit method in 1967-72.

Alimov, Oleg Dmitrievich

ALIMOV, Oleg Dmitrievich is the soviet scientist in the field of the mining science, the academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz SSR (since 1974; the corresponding member since 1961).

Alizade, Ali Ashraf Abdul Hussein oglu

ALIZADE, Ali Ashraf Abdul Hussein oglu is the soviet geologist, the academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Azerbaijan SSR (since 1945).

Aliev, Musa Mirzoevich

Aliev, Musa Mirzoevich is the soviet geologist, the academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Azerbaijan SSR (since 1950). He is the member of the CPSU since 1941.

Algerian-Tunisian Artesian Basin

ALGERIAN-TUNISIAN ARTESIAN BASIN, see the Great Saharan Artesian Basin article.


"ALEKSANDRIYAUGOL" is the productive consortium of the Ministry of the Coal Industry of the Ukrainian SSR for the extraction of the coal in the Kirovograd (most of the enterprises), Cherkasy and Zhytomyr provinces.


ALEXANDRITE is the mineral, rare transparent variety of the chrysoberyl of the different shades of the green colour in daylight, and of the purple or cherry-red one in the artificial light (which is associated with the selective transmission of the blue-green and red-violet light rays).


ALEUROLITE (from the Greek words "aleuron", which means "flour", and "lithos", which means "stone") is the cemented sedimentary rock, which is formed by more than 50% of the particles of the aleurite variety (0.01-0.1 millimetres or 0.005-0.05 millimetres).


ALEURITE (from the Greek word "aleuron", which means "flour") is the loose fine clastic sedimentary rock, which is intermediate by its composition between the sands and clays; it consists primarily of the mineral grains (quartz, feldspar, mica, and others) of the size of 0.01-0.1 millimetres (according to the other sources, 0.005-0.05 millimetres).

Aktyubinsk (Aktobe) phosphorite-bearing basin

AKTYUBINSK (AKTOBE) PHOSPHORITE-BEARING BASIN is located in the Aktyubinsk (Aktobe) province of the Kazakh SSR. The length is 400 kilometres from the middle flow of the Emba river at the south to the Orsk city at the north, the width is up to 60-80 kilometres.

Aldan Shield

ALDAN SHIELD is the protrusion of the Precambrian basement at the south-east of the Siberian platform, which is basically coinciding with the modern Aldan plateau and the Stanovoy ridge (of the height of more than 2,400 metres).


ALGOMA is the uranium ore region of Canada, see the Blind River article.

Alapaevsk group of the iron ore deposits

ALAPAEVSK GROUP OF THE IRON ORE DEPOSITS is located near the Alapaevsk city of the Sverdlovsk (oblast) province in the RSFSR, on the eastern slope of the Middle Urals mountain range. It is the oldest mining region of the Urals mountain range.

Akchatau mining-beneficiation combine

AKCHATAU MINING-BENEFICIATION COMBINE is the mining enterprise for the extraction and benefication of the rare metallic and complex metallic ores of the Akchatau, Karaobin, Akzhal and Kairakty deposits of the Dzhezkazgan province of the Kazakh SSR. It has been created in 1958.

Accessory minerals

ACCESSORY MINERALS (from the late Latin word "accessorius", which means "additional", "circumstantial") are the minerals, which are contained in the rocks in the non-significant quantities (less than 1%).

Acoustic velocity logging

ACOUSTIC VELOCITY LOGGING is the method of the geophysical surveys in the drilled wells, which is based on the study of the acoustic properties (the velocities of the propagation and the damping of the elastic waves) of the rocks, which are intersected by the drilled well.

Acoustic properties of the rocks

ACOUSTIC PROPERTIES OF THE ROCKS determine the nature of the propagation of the elastic waves in the rocks.

Acoustic stiffness of the rock

ACOUSTIC STIFFNESS OF THE ROCK is the ability of the rock to transmit the oscillating movement.

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