Letter "A"

Anzob mining-beneficiation combined enterprise

ANZOB MINING-BENEFICIATION COMBINED ENTERPRISE is the mining enterprise for the extraction and beneficiation of the complex mercury-antimony ores of the Dzhizhikrut deposit.

Andean (Cordilleran) geosynclinal fold belt

ANDEAN (CORDILLERAN) GEOSYNCLINAL FOLD BELT is the mobile belt of the earth crust, which is stretching itself along the entire continent of the South America, framing the South American platform (see the "South America" article) at the north, west and south.

Andreev, Sergey Efimovich

ANDREEV, SERGEY EFIMOVICH is the Soviet scientist in the field of the benefication of minerals, professor (1934), honoured scientist and engineer of the RSFSR (1957).

Andean folding

ANDEAN FOLDING, see within the "Mesozoic era folding" article.


ANDESITE (from the name of the Andes mountain range within the South America continent) is the cenotypal rock, effusive analog of diorite.


ANDALUSITE (from the name of the "Andalucia" historical region within Spain, where it has been found for the first time) is the mineral of the sub-class of the island silicates, the polymorphic modification of the silicate of aluminium, AlVI AlV [SiO4]O, which is formed at the lowest pressure and temperature.


ANGUSTIFOLIUM-PEAT is the type of the raised-bog peat, which is containing among the plant residues at least 70% of the sphagnum mosses, of which the remnants of the Sphagnum angustipholium constitute more than half; there are among other residues the cotton grass, scheuchzeria, heath shrubs, and unique residues of other grasses.

Angren coal deposit

ANGREN COAL DEPOSIT is located within the Tashkent province of the Uzbek SSR. The area is approximately 70 square kilometres. It has been discovered in 1933, and is developed since 1940.

Anglo-American Corporation of South Africa

"ANGLO-AMERICAN CORPORATION OF SOUTH AFRICA" ("Anglo American Corporation of South Africa Ltd.") is the financial holding company within the South Africa. It has been founded in 1917.


ANGLESITE (according to the place of the first find on the Anglesey island, within the United Kingdom) is the mineral of the class of the sulfates, Pb[SO4].


ANHYDRITE (from the Greek words "an" (negation particle) and hydor (water)) is the mineral of the class of sulfates, Ca[SO4].

Angara-Pit iron ore basin

ANGARA-PIT IRON ORE BASIN is situated at the south of the Krasnoyarsk territory of the RSFSR, between the Angara and Big Pit rivers.

Angara-Lena artesian basin

ANGARA-LENA ARTESIAN BASIN is situated within the Asian part of the territory of the RSFSR and is confined to the southern protrusion of the Siberian platform.

Angara-Katskaya group of the iron ore deposits

ANGARA-KATSKAYA GROUP OF THE IRON ORE DEPOSITS is situated within the Krasnoyarsk region of the RSFSR, at 100-150 kilometres from the Ust-Ilim hydroelectric power station.

Angara-Ilim iron-ore basin

ANGARA-ILIM IRON-ORE BASIN  is situated within the Irkutsk province of RSFSR, between the Angara and Ilim rivers.


ANATEXIS (from the Greek word "anatexis", which means "melting") is the set of the processes, which are leading to the melting of the solid rocks, and to their transformation into the magma.


ANATASE is the mineral, one of the three natural polymorphic modifications of rutile.

Anastasievsko-Troitskoe gas-oil field

ANASTASIEVSKO-TROITSKOE GAS-OIL FIELD is situated within the Krasnodar region of the RSFSR, 125 kilometres to the west of Krasnodar; it belongs to the North-Caucasus-Mangyshlak oil-gas-bearing province.


ANALCIME (from the Greek word "analkis", which means "weak", according to the weak electrization during the heating or friction) is the rock-forming mineral of the subclass of the framework silicates, Na[AlSi206]•H2O.

Analog simulation

ANALOG SIMULATION is based on the analogy of the phenomena and processes, which have the different physical nature, but are described by the identical mathematical (differential, algebraical, logical, and other) equations.

Analysis of minerals

ANALYSIS OF MINERALS is the complex of the mineralogical-petrographic, physical-chemical, and technological researches for the purpose of determination of the elemental or substantial composition, and of the beneficiation ability of the mineral raw materials.


ANAGLYPHS (from the Greek word "anaglyphos", which means "relief") is the method for the obtainment of the three-dimensional images of the objects on the paper, film, and other media, with the help of the colour stereoscopic pairs.

Anabar massif

ANABAR MASSIF, Anabar shield, Anabar anteclise, is the protrusion of the pre-Cambrian basement at the north of the Siberian platform, which is coinciding with the modern Anabar plateau (altitude more than 900 metres).


AMPHIBOLITE is the dark-coloured metamorphic rock, which is consisting mainly of alumina-rich amphibole (hornblende), plagioclase (andesine), and sometimes garnet.

Amphibole asbestos

Amphibole asbestos is the general name of the thin-fibrous minerals of the group of amphiboles, which are capable to endure, not changing, the high temperatures.

Amudarya artesian basin

AMUDARYA ARTESIAN BASIN occupies the depression of the same name within the limits of the Uzbek SSR and Tajik SSR.


AMMONITES are the powder-like explosive mixtures, the major components of which are the ammonium nitrate and nitro compounds.


AMMONALS are the ammonium nitrate explosive substances, which are containing as combustive component the powder of metallic aluminium.

Ammonium nitrate explosive substances

AMMONIUM NITRATE EXPLOSIVE SUBSTANCES are the explosive mixtures, the main component of which is the ammonium nitrate.

Ammonium nitrate

AMMONIUM NITRATE, nitrate of ammonia, ammonia saltpetre, ammonia nitre is the weak explosive substance, which is obtained by the interaction of ammonia with nitric acid.


AMETHYST (from the Greek word "amethystos", which means "sober", "not intoxicated"; it was used as the amulet against intoxication) is mineral, violet variety of quartz.


AMERICA is the part of the world, which is formed by the two continents, namely, the North America and South America; they usually draw the border between them through the Isthmus of Panama.


AMBLYGONITE (from the Greek words "amblys", which means "obtuse", and "gonia", which means "angle", according to the angles on the crystals and cleavage splinters) is the mineral of the class of phosphates, LiAl[PO4](F,OH).


AMALGAMATION is the process of selective extraction of metals (mostly noble) from ores, which is based on the ability of metals to form alloys (amalgams) with mercury during the wetting of these metals by mercury.


AMAZONITE (from the name of the Amazon river, where it has been found for the first time) is the mineral, highly ordered variety of the microcline of the bluish-green, turquoise, or bright green colour.


ALASKITE (from the name of the Alaska peninsula, where it has been found for the first time) is the leucocratic sub-alkaline granite without the dark-coloured minerals or with their minor quantity (up to 5%).

TNT/Al, Tritonal, Alumotol

ALUMOTOL is the explosive substance, which is the mixture of trotyl with aluminium.


ALUMINOSILICATES are the minerals of the class of the natural silicates.


ALUMINIUM, Al (from the Latin word "alumen", which means the name of the alums, which have been used during the ancient times as the mordant during the dyeing and tanning), is the chemical element of the Group 3 of the Periodic System by D.I.Mendeleev, its atomic number is 13, its atomic weight is 26.9815.

Aluminium ores

Aluminium ores are the natural mineral formations, which are containing aluminium in such compounds and concentrations, at which their industrial usage is technically possible and economically feasible.

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