Letter "A"

Arabian artesian basin

ARABIAN ARTESIAN BASIN is situated on the peninsula of the same name, occupies the largest part of territory of Saudi Arabia.

Appalachian mineral coal basin

APPALACHIAN MINERAL COAL BASIN is one of the largest coal basins within the world.

Apophyllite

APOPHYLLITE (from Greek words "apo" (from) and "phyllon" (leaf), according to the ability to split into leaflets within the flame of the blow torch) is the rock-forming mineral of the sub-class of layered silicates, KCa4[Si4O10]2F•8H20.

Apophyses

APOPHYSES are the side branches from the veins, lava covers, and intrusive bodies, which have penetrated into the host rocks.

Aplite

APLITE (from the Greek word "haploos" (simple)) is the leucocratic veinous magmatic rock, which is deficient in mica and other coloured minerals.

Apatite ores

APATITE ORES are the natural mineral aggregates, which are containing apatite in such quantity and in such form, that its extraction into concentrate is technologically possible and economically feasible.

"Apatite"

"APATITE" is the productive consortium named after S.M.Kirov for the extraction and beneficiation of apatite-nepheline ores of the Khibinskaya group of deposits of the Ministry for the Production of Mineral Fertilizers of the USSR.

Apatite

APATITE (from the Greek word "apate" (deception), because apatite was often mistaken for other minerals) is the mineral of the class of phosphates, Ca5[PO4]3(F,Cl,OH)2.

Anthropogenic system

ANTHROPOGENIC SYSTEM (PERIOD), see the "Quaternary system (period)" article.

Antropov, Petr Yakovlevich

ANTROPOV, PETR YAKOVLEVICH is the Soviet statesman, organizer of the mining industry and geological service within the USSR, the Hero of Socialist Labour (1954). He is the member of the CPSU since 1932.

Anthracite

ANTHRACITE (from the Greek word "anthrakitis" (the type of coal)) is mineral coal with the highest degree of coalification (metamorphism).

Anthraxolites

ANTHRAXOLITES is the group of the solid carbonaceous compounds, which are insoluble within the organic solvents, and are composed primarily of carbon (95-100%).

Anthracosis

ANTHRACOSIS, see the "Pneumoconiosis" article.

Anthophyllite-asbestos ores

ANTHOPHYLLITE-ASBESTOS ORES see the "Asbestos" article.

Antonovskoe mining administration

ANTONOVSKOE MINING ADMINISTRATION is the mining enterprise for the extraction of quartzites within the Kemerovo province of the RSFSR.

Antifermenter

ANTIFERMENTER for drilling is the substance, which prevents or decreases the enzymatic decomposition of the starch-containing reagents, of dextran and other polysaccharides, which are added into the drilling fluids.

Antipyrogenes

ANTIPYROGENES are the substances, which hinder the self-ignition of useful minerals (of coal, ore, peat, and others) within the underground mines, within the open pit mines, within the dumps of the waste rock, and so on.

Antipyrenes

ANTIPYRENES are the substances, which protect the wood, woven fabrics, and other materials of organic origin against ignition and independent combustion.

Antioxidants for drilling

ANTIOXIDANTS for drilling are the synthetic and natural substances, which are increasing the stability of chemical reagents of the drilling fluid during the action of oxygen within the conditions of high temperatures...

Antimonite

ANTIMONITE (from the Late Latin "antimonium" (antimony)), stibnite is the mineral of the class of sulphides, namely, the Sb2S3; it is the major source for the obtainment of antimony.

Anticlinorium

ANTICLINORIUM (from the Greek words "anti" (opposite), "klino" (incline), and "yros" (mountain, hill)) is the large and complicately built complex of the folds of the layers of the Earth's crust, which usually emerges within the geosynclines.

Anticline

ANTICLINE, anticlinal fold (From the Greek words "anti" (opposite) and "klino" (incline)) is the fold of the layers of the rocks, which is facing with its convex part upwards...

Antigrisonousness of explosive substances

ANTIGRISONOUSNESS OF EXPLOSIVE SUBSTANCES is the property of explosive substances to not ignite the explosive mixtures of combustible mining gases or dust with air during the blasting works within the mining workings (coal, sulfur, oil, and other).

Antigrisonous explosive substances

ANTIGRISONOUS EXPLOSIVE SUBSTANCES is the obsolete name of the safety explosive substances.

Antigorite

ANTIGORITE is mineral, the variety of serpentine.

Anteclise

ANTECLISE (from Greek words "anti" (opposite) and "klisis" (inclination)) is the extensive vault-shaped slightly inclined uplift of the layers of the Earth's crust within the limits of the platforms (plates), which is the opposite of the syneclise.

Antarctic platform

ANTARCTIC PLATFORM is one of the ancient pre-Cambrian tectonic stable structures of the Earth's crust, which occupies the dominant eastern part of the territory of Antarctica.

Antarctica

ANTARCTICA is the southern polar mainland, which is occupying the central part of the southern Antarctic polar region. It is situated almost entirely inside of the Antarctic Circle.

Anosov, Pavel Petrovich

ANOSOV, PAVEL PETROVICH is the Russian scientist. In 1817, he has graduated from the Mining cadet corps within the St. Petersburg, and has arrived at the Zlatoust state plants, where he worked for approximately 30 years.

Anorthosite

ANORTHOSITE (from the French word "anorthose" (plagioclase)) is the rock of the group of gabbro, which is consisting mainly of the calcium-rich calcareous-alkaline feldspar, usually of labrador (labradorite)...

Anorthite

ANORTHITE (from the Greek word "anorthos" (oblique), according to the oblique shape of crystals) is the rock-forming mineral, the end member of the isomorphous series of plagioclases, Ca[Al2Si2O8].

Anomalous layer (reservoir) pressure

ANOMALOUS LAYER (RESERVOIR) PRESSURE is the pressure, which acts onto the fluids (water, oil, gas), which are contained within the porous space of the rock, the magnitude of which differs from the normal (hydrostatic) one.

Anomalously viscous oils

ANOMALOUSLY VISCOUS OILS are the oils, which are not obeying the Newton's law of the viscous friction during their flow (for example, the non-Newtonian oils).

Anomalous layer temperature

ANOMALOUS LAYER TEMPERATURE is the sharply changed temperatures within the limits of the local structures in comparison with the background temperature, which is characteristic for the corresponding layers of the large structural-tectonic elements.

Annabergite

ANNABERGITE (from the name of the "Annaberg" deposit within the Ore mountains, Saxony, East Germany) is the mineral of the class of arsenates, Ni3[AsO4]2 • 8H2O.

Ankleshvar

ANKLESHWAR is the oil and gas field within India (Gujarat state), at the 16 kilometres to the south-east from the Bharuch city.

Anchoring of pipelines

ANCHORING OF PIPELINES is the method of the fixation of pipelines on the anchored supports; it is used for the prevention of the surfacing of pipelines, which are laid within the swamped and watered soils.

Anchorage

ANCHORAGE is the mining roof support, the major element of which is the metallic, concrete, polymer, or wooden rod (anchor), which is fixated within the hole (borehole).

Ankerite

ANKERITE (from the name of the Austrian mineralogist Matthias Anker) is the mineral of the class of carbonates, Ca(Mg,Fe2+)[CO3]2. Commonly ratio Mg:Fe2+ is 1:1, ratio (Mg+ Fe2+):Ca is from 1:1 to 3:1.

Anisotropy

ANISOTROPY of rocks (from the Greek words "anisos" (not equal) and "tropos" (direction)) is the difference of the values of the properties (deformational, electrical, thermal, magnetic, optical, and others) of the rocks along the different directions.

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