Letter "A"


ASTROPHYLLITE (from the Greek words "astron" (star) and "phyllon" (leaf)) is the rock-forming mineral, titanium-zirconium-silicate (K,Na)3(Mn,Fe)7Ti2[Si4O12]2(O,OH,F)7.

Astrakhan field of the natural-gas condensate

ASTRAKHAN FIELD of the natural-gas condensate is situated within the Astrakhan province of the RSFSR, at the distance of 60 kilometres from the Astrakhan city to the north-east, it belongs to the Caspian oil-gas-bearing province.


ASTHENOSPHERE (from the Greek words "asthenes" (weak) and "sphaira" (ball)) is the layer of the decreased viscosity within the upper mantle of the Earth.

Assonov, Vasiliy Andreyevich

ASSONOV, Vasiliy Andreyevich is the Soviet scientist in the field of the blasting craft.

Assintian folding

ASSINTIAN FOLDING, see the "Baikalian folding" article.


ASSIMILATION in petrography (from the Latin word "assimilatio" (assimilation, merging)) is the process of capturing, remelting, and subsequent complete digestion of the substance of the country (lateral) rocks by the intruding magma, without the preservation of the relics of the rocks, which have been devoured.


ASPIRATION (from the Latin word "aspiratio" (inhalation)) is the suction of the air with the usage of the special tools and devices, at the place of the creation of the harmful substances (dust, gases).


ASPIRATOR (from the Latin word "aspiro" (inhale, exhale)) is the device for the collecting of the samples of the air for the purpose of the analysis of the impurities, which are contained within it...


ASBOLAN (from the Greek word "asbolos" (soot, carbon black) according to the colour and external appearance of the emissions) is the mineral, the hydrous oxide of manganese, cobalt and nickel, of the varying composition; cobaltous wad (Co, Ni)O • MnO2 • nH2O.


ASBESTOSIS is the chronic occupational desease of the organs of respiration, which develops during the prolonged inhalation of the dust of asbestos.


ASBESTOS, asbestos ores (from the Greek word "asbestos" (unquenchable, indestructible)), is the group of the fibrous minerals, which have the ability to split into the thinnest flexible fibers.

Architectural-building stone products

ARCHITECTURAL-BUILDING STONE PRODUCTS are the construction details, which are used for the emphasization of the architectural expressiveness of buildings and other structures, and also as the individual parts and aggregates within their constructions.


ARCHEAN (from the Greek word "archaios" (original, ancient)) is the lower of the two largest sub-divisions of the pre-Cambrian.


ARFVEDSONITE (in honour of the Swedish chemist J.A.Arfwedson) is the rock-forming mineral, monoclinic alkaline amphibole, Na2,5Ca0,5(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+,Al)5[Al0,5Si7,5O22](OH,F)2.


"ARTIKTUF" is the productive consortium of the Ministry of industrial construction materials of the Armenian SSR for the extraction of the dimension stone for the walls, for the manufacturing of the artificial tuff blocks, tuff crushed gravel, sand, and tuff slabs for the facing.


"Artemugol" is the productive consortium for the extraction of coal within the Donetsk province of the Ukrainian SSR. It has been established in the 1976.


"ARTEMSOL" is the productive consortium for the extraction of salt within the Donetsk province of the Ukrainian SSR.


"ARTEM-2" is the underground mine #2, which has been named after Artem, for the extraction of the high grade iron ores within the Krivoy Rog iron ore basin; it belongs to the mining enterprise, which has been named after S.M.Kirov.

Artesian basin

ARTESIAN BASIN is the basin of the underground waters, which is confined to the negative geological structure (syneclise, trough, downfold, intra-mountainous depression), which is containing the pressurized formation waters.

Artesian deep-pumping installations

ARTESIAN DEEP-PUMPING INSTALLATIONS - see the "Deep-pumping installations for the artesian aquifers" article.

Artesian waters

ARTESIAN WATERS (from the name of Artois, French province, Artesium in Latin language) are the pressurized formation waters, which are embedded between the waterproof layers.


ARSENOPYRITE, arsenical pyrite (from the words "arsenicum" (the Latin name for arsenic) and pyrite), is the mineral of the class of sulphides, FeAsS.

Arched pipelines

ARCHED PIPELINES is the type of the overground overpasses, which are created in the shape of the arch; they are constructed above the various obstacles.

Arched roof support

ARCHED ROOF SUPPORT is the framed roof support, which comprises the individual fortified arches (metallic, concrete, combined), which are installed perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the mine working at the certain distance one from one another.

Reinforcement of the mine shafts

REINFORCEMENT OF THE MINE SHAFTS is the installation within the shaft of the structures (buntons and guides), which are facilitating the movement of the lifting conveyance vessels; it also includes the construction of the ladders, and the laying of the engineering communications.


ARLIT is the large uranium ore region within the Republic of Niger.

Arctic geosynclinal belt

ARCTIC GEOSYNCLINAL BELT is the mobile belt of the Earth's crust, which encircles the depression of the Arctic ocean at the south.

Arctic pipelines

ARCTIC PIPELINES are the trunk pipelines (transport lines for the gas, oil, and oil products), which are constructed on the territory, which is limited with the Arctic circle (66 degrees 33 minutes of the northern latitude).


"ARCTICUGOL" is the trust for the extraction of coal on the Svalbard archipelago of the Ministry of the coal industry of the USSR.


ARKOSES, ARKOSIC SANDSTONE are the coarse-grained rocks, which are consisting of quartz, feldspars, mica, and cementing (clayish, carbonatic) substances; they are the product of the destruction of granites and gneisses.

Arkagalinskoe coal deposit

ARKAGALINSKOE COAL DEPOSIT is the major fuel base of the Magadan province of the RSFSR, at the distance of 700 kilometres to north-west from Magadan, with which it is connected with highways.

Areometer for drilling

AREOMETER FOR DRILLING is the device for the measurement of the density of the drilling fluid.


ARENQUE (Arenque) is the oil field within the Mexico country. It is situated on the coastal shelf. It belongs to the Gulf of Mexico oil-and-gas-bearing basin.


ARGON, Ar (from the Greek word "argon" (inactive)), is the chemical element of the main subgroup of the Group VIII of the Periodic system by Mendeleev, it belongs to the inert gases, the atomic number is 18, the atomic mass is 39.948.


ARGILLITE (from the Greek words "argillos" (clay) and "lithos" (stone)) is the pelitic sedimentary rock, which has formed itself as the result of the compaction...


ARGENTITE (from the Latin word "argentum" (silver)) is the mineral of the class of sulphides, the cubic polymorphic modification of Ag2S, which is stable at the temperature of more than 173 degrees Celsius (below this temperature it transitions to acanthite).

Araucanian folding

ARAUCANIAN FOLDING, see the "Mesozoic epochs of folding" article.

Aramco, Arabian American Oil Co.

"ARAMCO" ("Arabian American Oil Co.") is the oil monopoly of the USA.


ARAGONITE (has been found for the first time among the depositions of gypsum within the Aragon region of Spain) is the mineral of the class of carbonates, Ca[CO3].

Arabian-African phosphorite-bearing province

ARABIAN-AFRICAN PHOSPHORITE-BEARING PROVINCE is one of the largest provinces of phosphorites within the world, which is occupying the vast territory at the north of the Africa and Arabian Peninsula.

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