AUTOMATIC CONTROL

AUTOMATIC CONTROL (EN: automatic control, automatic management; DE: automatische Steuerung; FR: commande automatique, gestion automatique; ES: control automatico; RU: автоматическое управление) is the process of the control over the object, during which the operations, which ensure the reaching of the given goal, are carried out by the system, which is functioning without the human intervention in accordance with the given in advance algorithm.

Automatic control is implemented in the automatic control systems (in Russian, SAU, Sistema Avtomatizirovannogo Upravleniya, the System of the Automated Control) the combination of the automatic control device and the controlled object. The SAU is subdivided into the systems: the automatic adjustment systems (in Russian, SAR, Sistema Avtomaticheskogo Regulirovaniya, the System of the Automatic Adjustment), the job of which is to maintain the constant value of the controlled quantity, the programmed control systems, where the controlled quantity changes according to the given program, the tracking control systems, for which the control program is not known in advance, and the character of the behaviour of the system completely depends on the change of the conditions of the functioning of the object under the control, the adaptive control systems, or the self-adapting control systems.

In accordance with the perfecting of the technical equipment and the methods of the automatic control, most or all of the operations are automated as the unified complex (the integrated and complete automation). The transition to the integrated automation and more complicated algorithms is, as a rule, associated with the usage of the computers and the creation of the (in Russian, ASU, Avtomatizirovannaya Sistema Upravleniya, the Automated Control System) automated control systems.

The automatic control is used at almost all mining enterprises. There has been introduced at the mines the integrated automation of the underground extraction of the coal, which is based on the extensive usage of the automated heading combines and conveyor lines, automated ventilation and drainage installations, and other mechanisms. At certain mines (for example, at the "Progress" mine of the "Novomoskovskugol" concern, and at the "Octyabrskaya" mine of the "Donetskugol" concern), almost all technological line from the stope to the lift is automated. Almost all compressor and pumping stations of the gas and oil pipelines are operating in the automatic mode.

Besides this, there are used at the oil fields: the group measuring installations, which automatically switch the wells, and perform the measurements, control the status of the wells, and ensure their blocking in the case of the accident; the automated separation plants, in which the separation of the oil and water is performed; the installations for the automatic accounting and delivery of the marketable oil, and other equipment. At the benefication factories, the processes of the crushing, grinding, grading, drainage, and others are combined into the unified continuous flow with automatic control and monitoring.