AUTOMATED CONTROL SYSTEM
AUTOMATED CONTROL SYSTEM (in Russian, ASU, Avtomatizirovannaya Sistema Upravleniya) (EN: automated control system; DE: automatisiertes Steuerungssystem; FR: systeme automatise de соmmande; ES: sistema automatizado de control; RU: автоматизированная система управления) is the combination of the economic-mathematical methods, technical equipment (computers, display devices, communications equipment, etc.), and the organizational structure, which are ensuring the rational control of the complex objects and processes.
ASU allows to solve the problems of the prospective and operative planning of the productive process, the operative distribution of the workload of the equipment, the optimal allocation and usage of the resources, etc. ASU belongs to the class of the man-machine systems, and comprises the functional and providing parts.
The functional part includes the system of the models of the economic-planning and control tasks, the providing part includes the informational and technical bases, the mathematical solutions (computer software), economic-organizational bases, etc.
The informational base of the ASU is represented by the combination of all the data sets, which are placed on the computer data storage media, and are necessary for the automation of the control of the object or process.
The technical base is the complex of the technical means for the gathering, transmission, processing, accumulation, and output of the data, as well as the devices, that are directly acting on the objects, which are under the control (for example, automatic adjusters, executive mechanisms (actuators), etc.). The main elements of the technical base are the computers, which perform the accumulation and processing of the information, which is circulating in the ASU.
The mathematical solutions (computer software) of the ASU is subdivided into the system and special types. The first includes the operating systems (OS), which are dedicated to the control of the operation of the devices of the computers, the organization of the schedule of the computing tasks, monitoring and control of the data processing tasks, as well as for the automation of the work of the programmers. The access to the computer from the remote subscriber places (teleprocessing of the data) is also performed with the help of the operating systems. The special software includes the packages of the application programs, which are performing the organizing and the processing of the data in order to implement the necessary control functions within the certain economic-mathematical and organizational models.
They distinguish the main types of the ASU: the systems of the organizational (or administrative) control (in Russian, ASOU, Avtomatizirovannaya Sistema Organizatsionnogo Upravleniya, Automated System of the Organizational Control), and of the control of the technological processes (in Russian, ASUTP, Avtomatizirovannaya Sistema Upravleniya Tehnologicheskimi Protsessami, Automated Control System for the Technological Processes). ASOU comprises the automated enterprise management systems (in Russian, ASUP, Avtomatizirovannaya Sistema Upravleniya Predpriyatiem, Automated Control System for the Enterprise), industry specific automated control systems (in Russian, OASU, Otraslevaya Avtomatizirovannaya Sistema Upravleniya, Automated Control System for the Industry), and the specialized automated systems for the control of the functional instruments of the management of the national economy. The latter include the automated planning computations (in Russian, ASPR, Avtomatizirovannaya Sistema Planovyh Raschetov, Automated System for the Planning Computations), the state statistics (in Russian, ASGS, Avtomatizirovannaya Sistema Gosudarstvennoy Statistiki, Automated System for the State Statistics), the control of the material and technical logistics (in Russian, ASUMTS, Avtomatizirovannaya Sistema Upravleniya Materialno-Tehnicheskogo Snabzheniya, Automated Control System for the Material and Technical Logistics), the control of the scientific and technical progress (in Russian, ASUNT, Avtomatizirovannaya Sistema Upravleniya Nauchno-Tehnicheskim Progressom, Automated Control System for the Scientific and Technical Progress), and others. There is created in the USSR (1982), the network of the computing centres (in Russian, GSVTS, Gosudartstvennaya Set Vychislitelnyh Tsentrov, State Network of the Computing Centres), and the unified automated network of the country (in Russian, EASS, Edinaya Avtomatizirovannaya Set Strany, Unified Automated Network of the Country). The foundation of the CSEE is comprised of the territorial computing centres for the collective usage (in Russian, TVTSKP, Territorialnyi Vychislitelnyi Tsentr Kollektivnogo Polzovaniya, Territorial Computing Centre for the Collective Usage), which are serving the enterprises, organizations, and the territorial governments, not depending on their departmental affiliations. The CSEE also includes the branching informational-computing centres (in Russian, KIVTS, Kustovoy Informatsionno-Vychislitelnyi Tsentr, Branching Informational-Computing Centre), the computing centres for the individual usage, and the subscriber places, which are equiped with the complex of the devices, which are dedicated to the collection, preparation (primary processing), and transmission of the data to the KIVTS, as well as to the receiving of the information from the KIVTS and bringing this information to the consumer.
The combination of the technical equipment of both the KIVTS and the subscribers, which are connected by the channels of communication, forms the branching informational-computing network (in Russian, KIVS, Kustovaya Informatsionno-Vychislitelnaya Set, Branching Informational-Computing Network). The main computing centres (in Russian, GIVTS, Glavnyi Informatsionno-Vychislitelnyi Tsentr, Main Informational-Computing Centre), which are connected with the KIVTS by the channels of communication, are created in the ministries and departments for the operation of OASU. The systems of the automated control in the oil industry are constructed at the main productive enterprises, and operate on the two levels of the control of the industry; the ministry and the productive-territorial amalgamation.
Organizational-technological ASU's (in Russian, ASUOT, Avtomatizirovannaya Sistema Upravleniya Organizatsionno-Tehnologicheskaya, Automated Control System for the Organization and Technology) are created: at the enterprises and manufacturing facilities, in the controlling organizations for the oil and gas extraction, in the controlling organizations for the drilling operations, at the trunk oil pipelines, at the gas processing plants. These systems, taking into account the specificity of the main production in the oil industry, are used by the complex automated regional engineering and technological services. The ASUTP's in the industry comprise the complex of the organically related subsystems, which control the drilling of the wells, the technological processes of the oil and gas extracting production, the oil pipeline transport, the processing of the geophysical information, the information during the design and analysis of the development of the fields, and during the drafting of the projects for the infrastructure of the fields.
There are performed in the Ministry of the Gas Industry (Mingazprom) of the USSR with the help of the OASU the computations for the prospective and current planning, for the operative control of the enterprises, of the financial and accounting activity, the planning and the personnel records. The subsystem of the dispatcher control of the unified automated system of the gas supply allows, with the help of the computer, to collect and analyze the accounting and planning information, to perform the optimization computations for the usage of the trunk gas pipelines, and to perform the payment computations with the consumers.
In the Ministry of Geology of the USSR, the automated control system of the geology exploration activities (ASU-Geology) operates at the industry level (national and republican), and at the level of the productive geological organizations (including the ASU control of the expeditions). Based on the peculiarities of the process of the geological study of the underground resources, the ASU-Geology comprises: the automated systems for the processing of the geological-geophysical information for the solving of the geological problems, automated systems for the control of the productive processes at the geological exploration facilities (primarily the systems for the control of the drilling operations), automation of the processes of the control of the economy of the industry, and the automated system of the scientific and technical information. The problems of the operative control of the industry (including the control at the facilities of the exploration activities) are solved on the basis of the informational-dispatching service of the industry.
There are also solved within the ASU-Geology the problems of the geological-economic evaluation of the deposits during the exploration, and of the optimal planning of the development of the geological exploration activities. The ASUTP's, the automated dispatching control, etc, are created and introduced in the systems of the Ministry of the Coal Industry of the USSR, the Ministry of the Non-Ferrous Metallurgy (Mintsvetmet) of the USSR, the Ministry of the Ferrous Metallurgy (Minchermet) of the USSR, and other extracting ministries. There are working in the non-ferrous metallurgy, as the part of the OASU-Non-ferrous system, the software complexes of the optimization problems, and of the direct planning computations in the relation to the mining and benefication productive industry.
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