ARTESIAN WATERS (from the name of Artois, French province, Artesium in Latin language * EN: artesian water; DE: artesisches Wasser; FR: eau artesienne; ES: agua artesiana; RU: артезианские воды) are the pressurized formation waters, which are embedded between the waterproof layers. They form the large pressurised water systems, namely, the artesian basins.
The artesian waters, which have been unsealed with boreholes, rise above the roof of the aquifer, and, with the excessive hydrostatic pressure, flow onto the surface of the Earth or gush. The formation of pressure of artesian water is associated with hydraulic isolation of aquifers, with difference of the heights of regions of supply and distribution of the waters, which are located within the lower places; there also plays the certain role the squeezing of the water from the compacting sediments (clays) into the less compacted ones (sandstones, limestones). The conditions of embedment of artesian waters are various, they are mainly confined to the trough-shaped folded structures; they may also be found with the knee-shaped asymmetric monoclinal embedment of the layers.
Artesian waters within the regions of the active water exchange are fresh or saltish, within the conditions of the stagnant regime are salty or brines, and are, it seems, the buried waters of the ancient sea basins, which were located on this territory during the different geological epochs. During the development of deposits of artesian waters (if they are not the independent object of operation), they manifest themselves as the breaches, they hinder the heading of the mine workings, and require the usage of special measures for the protection of the workings against the water.
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