Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (AR: Haykakan Sovetakan Sotsialistakan Hanrapetutiun; RU: Армянская Советская Социалистическая Республика), Armenia, is situated at the south of the Transcaucasia. It borders the Georgian SSR to the north, the Azerbaijan SSR to the east, Iran to the south, and Turkey to the west. The area is 29.8 thousand square kilometres. The population is 3222 thousand persons (1983, census). The capital city is the Yerevan city (it was named Erivan till 1937 in Russian language). There are within the republic 36 rural districts, 24 cities, and 33 settlements of the urban type.
The general characteristic of the economy. The volume of the investments into the economy of Armenia during the 1980 has amounted to 1130 million rubles (during the 1975, 958 million rubles). The major branches of the industry are the energetical economy, mechanical engineering, chemical industry, non-ferrous metallurgy, mining and extraction of the ores, non-metallic building materials, food, consumer goods, woodworking, and so on. The share of the mining-extracting industry within the gross produce of Armenia during the 1980 has amounted to 4.9%; at the same time the share of the non-metallic building materials has amounted to 2.4%. Armenia produces the refined copper (the extraction and processing of the ore, metallurgy), primary aluminium (from the delivered alumina), rolled products and foil of aluminium, molybdenum, zinc, lead, barite in the form of concentrates, gold, silver, tellurium, selenium, rhenium (in the form of sludges and concentrates), copper sulfate, sulfuric acid, and so on. Armenia holds the 2nd place in the production of the molybdenum concentrate and copper sulfate among the Union republics, and the 3rd place in the production of the refined copper.
Armenia is provided with the fuel on the account of the delivery of the natural and liquefied gas, heavy fuel oil, mineral coal, and so on, mostly from the Azerbaijan SSR, and from the provinces of the North Caucasus. The productive capacity of all the electrical power stations amounts to 3516 thousand kilowatts (1980), including 815 thousand kilowatts of the Armenian nuclear electrical power station, 945 thousand kilowatts of the hydro-electrical power stations; the total production of electricity within the country is 14.3 billion kilowatt-hours (1981).
The nature. Armenia is situated within the subtropical zone, and occupies 1/12 part of the north-eastern part of the Armenian highland. The relief is represented by the numerous, highly incised folded-blocked mountainous ridges, volcanic massifs, lava plateaus, and intermountain depressions. There are characteristical the landslides. Approximately 90% of the territory lies higher than 1000 metres above the level of the sea, the average height is 1800 metres. The highest point is the Aragats mountain (4090 metres), the lowest points are within the Debed (at the north-east) and Arak (at the south-east) gorges, namely, 350-400 metres.
The mountainous relief causes the variety of the types of the climate. The climate of the plain and foothill parts is dry continental, the average temperature during July is 25 degrees Celsius, the absolute maximum is 42 degrees Celsius, the average temperature during January is -5 degrees Celsius, the precipitation is 200-400 millimetres per year. On the mountainous plateaus (the altitude is up to 1400 metres), the average temperature during July is 20 degrees Celsius, the average temperature during January is -6 degrees Celsius, the precipitation is approximately 500 millimetres per year. Within the middle mountains, the climate is temperate, the average temperature during July-August is 18 degrees Celsius, the winter is snowy, the average temperature during January is from -2 to -9 degrees Celsius, the precipitation is 600-800 millimetres per year. Within the highlands (the altitude is 2000-3000 metres), the climate is cold, the average temperature during June is from 10 to 15 degrees Celsius, the average temperature during January is from -9 to -14 degrees Celsius. The low water, typically mountainous rivers of Armenia belong to the basins of the Caspian sea. There are on the territory of Armenia 146 rivers, 8 thousand water source springs, and more than 100 mountainous lakes; the largest lake is the lake Sevan, the largest river is the Arak river. Approximately 1/5 part of the territory of Armenia (mostly the north-western and south-western parts) is covered with the forests and shrubs; there are developed the xerophytic woodlands, and yet higher, there are the subalpine and alpine meadows.
The geological structure. The territory of Armenia is situated within the limits of the folded-blocked arcuate meganticlinorium of the Lesser Caucasus as the unified structure, which has formed itself during the most recent stage, starting from the Oligocene (see the "Mediterranean geosynclinal belt", "Caucasus" articles). The length of the structure is 360 kilometres, the width is 180 kilometres, the thickness of the Earth's crust, according to the seismic data, is 48±3 kilometres. There are distinguished within the structure of the region from the north-east to the south-east the zones: near-Kura, Somkheti-Karabakh, Kapan, Sevan-Həkəri, Ankavan-Zangezur, Yerevan-Ordubad, and near-Aras ones. The first three zones belong to the Transcaucasian median massif, the last three zones belong to the Iranian massif; the Sevan-Həkəri zone corresponds to the alpine eugeosyncline. There form the metamorphic basement of the Ankavan-Zangezur, and partly of the Somkheti-Karabakh and near-Kura zones (Cambrian - pre-Cambrian) the gneisses, amphibolites, the quartz-mica, chloritic and graphite-bearing schists, the phyllites, marbles, dolomites, and so on, which have been breached by the granitoid and gabbro-peridotite intrusives. The basement is embedded at the depth of up to 6-8 kilometres, emerging at the surface within the certain places. Within the near-Kura, Somkheti-Karabakh, and Kapan zones, there overlay the basement the unevenly dislocated volcanogenic-sedimentary formations of the Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene, and within the near-Kura and partly Kapan zones, also the Neogene-Quaternary depositions, which are embedded in the slightly inclined manner. There form the cover of the Yerevan-Ordubad and near-Aras zones the terrigenous-carbonatic formations of the Silurian - Lower Devonian, Middle and Upper Devonian, Lower Carboniferous, Permian and Triassic (which are including the packs of the phosphorites, meta-quartzites, laterites), substantially sedimentary and partly volcanogenic complexes of the Mesozoic, Paleogene, and Miocene, and also the lacustrine-fluvial, volcanic, and loose depositions of the Pliocene-Pleistocene.
The depositions of the Lias are represented by the sandy-argillaceous and tuffaceous rocks, and are embedded on the metamorphic basement, and partly on the Paleozoic complex. Within the Somkheti-Karabakh and Kapan zones, there are extensively developed the thick (up to 5 kilometres) volcanogenic-sedimentary strata of the Middle and Upper Jurassic, and of the Lower Cretaceous (andesitic porphyrites, quartzous plagio-porphyries, keratophyres, tuffaceous breccias, tuffaceous conglomerates, organogenic limestones, dolomites, argillaceous and carbonaceous shales, arkosic and tuffaceous sandstones, and so on), which are including the industrial deposits of the copper-pyritic and polymetallic ores, and so on. The younger horizons of the Cretaceous, from the Albian to Santonian, within the Somkheti-Karabakh zone, are represented by the volcanogenic-sedimentary formations, and from the Campanian to the Danish stage by the limestones and marls. These complexes include the clusters of the manganese ores, the industrial deposits of the bentonites, lithographic limestones, glauconites, zeolites, felsitic tuffs, and so on. Within the Sevan-Həkəri and Yerevan-Ordubad zones, the cross section of the Albian - lower Senonian is formed by the limestone-terrigenous (with the thickness of up to 1.5 kilometres) and volcanogenic formations. Within the first of these zones, within the lower part of the cross section, there is embedded the formation of the pelagic limestones of the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous, which is inderlain by the Middle Jurassic volcanites. There form the cross section of the Cretaceous within the both zones the graywacke and limestone formations of the upper Senonian with the thickness of up to 1 kilometre. Several researches refer to the early Senonian the forming of the tectonic covers.
The Paleogene of the Yerevan-Ordubad zone is represented by the thick (4-5 kilometres) sedimentary-pyroclastic flyschoid, and during the Oligocene by the molassic complexes, within the near-Aras zone by the limestone-terrigenous complex with the thickness of up to 0.5 kilometres, within the Sevan-Həkəri zone by the thick (up to 5-6 kilometres) stratum of the andesites, dacites, and volcanoclasts of the similar composition. At the certain places, they contain the copper-pyritic and polymetallic ores, and the depositions of the various non-metallic useful minerals. The molasses of the Middle Miocene enclose the thick industrial depositions of the rock salt. There are developed during the Upper Miocene - Lower Pliocene of the region the thick covers of the andesitic and andesite-dacitic lavas and their pyroclasts (Kechut, Tsakhkun, Geghama, Vardenis mountainous ranges, and so on). For the Upper Pliocene, there are characteristic the covers, flows, and sills of the doleritic basalts (the age is 3.5 million years), which are forming the large fields within the limits of the Kars, Akhalkalaki, Lori, Kotayk, and Bayazet plateaus. For the basaltic covers, there are characteristic the columnar separations. There follow behind them the thick covers and flows of the andesites (Aragats, Arailer, and others), dacites, and subalkaline lavas (Ishkhansar and others).
The 4 cycles of the most recent volcanism, which are known within Armenia, have manifested themselves during the lower, middle, upper Pleistocene and Holocene. Within the north-western and central Armenia, there are developed the lavas of the andesitic basalts, and less often the lavas and tuffaceous lavas of the dacites, and at the east and south-east, there are developed the sub-alkaline and alkaline lavas (Syunik highland). There have been identified approximately 550 centres of the eruptions during the Quaternary time. There form the isolated class of the volcanites of the Plio-Pleistocene the acidic rocks: liparites, perlites, obsidians, and lithoidal pumices, which are forming the extrusive domes and shields.
The intrusive magmatism has manifested itself during the multiple stages: during the Baikalian tectonic epoch, there has formed itself the granite-gneissic Arzakan massif, during the Hercynian epoch, there have formed themselves the gray, pink, and leucocratic granites of the Loki and Arzakan massifs, during the Cimmerian epoch, there have formed themselves the granitoids of the Haghpat, Kokhb, Tavush, Tsav, Spitaksar, Takarlin massifs, during the Alpine epoch, there have formed themselves the granitoids of the Miskhano-Zangezur and Sevan-Həkəri zones. There is associated with the granitoids of the Cimmerian and Alpine tectonic epochs the copper-molybdenum, lead-zinc, and gold-polymetallic mineralization; there is associated with the small intrusions of the Pliocene the apatite-magnetitic mineralization (the Kaputan deposit); there are associated with the sub-volcanic and extrusive quartzous porphyries and albitophyres of the Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Paleogene the copper-pyritic and other ores.
The small massifs of the ultrabasic rocks of the pre-Cambrian age are known within the Arzakan-Aparan metamorphic complex, the massifs of the Mesozoic ultrabasic rocks are known within the drainage basin of the Tartar river. The largest ophiolitic series have emerged during the Jurassic and Cretaceous. From the south to the north, there are distinguished the near-Aras (Vedic), Zangezur (Shirak-Zangezur), Sevan (Sevan-Həkəri) ophiolitic zones. There are associated with the peridotites and dunites of these zones the manifestations of the chromite, asbestos, magnesite, diamonds, and so on.
The seismicity. There play the important role within the structure of the region the sub-meridional deep faults of the Transcaucasian belt, and also the extended disjunctive seams of the interzonal type. There coincide with many of them the focuses of the earthquakes and volcanoes, the mineral water sources, travertine schields; there is confined to them the increased heat flow. According to the 12-points scale, the seismicity of the near-Aras region of the Minor Caucasus is estimated at 8 points, the seismicity of the near-Kura region is estimated at 7 points.
The hydrogeology. The resources of the underground waters of Armenia are estimated at approximately 140 cubic metres per second. There are concentrated at the zones of the faults the manifestations of the mineral waters (400 water sources) with the total yield of approximately 1000 litres per second. The temperature of the water within them reaches 20-42 degrees Celsius, rarely 63-73 degrees Celsius. The temperature gradient is from 1 degree per 30 metres (according to the data of the boreholes with the depth of 3000-4300 metres) to 1 degree per 25 metres.
The useful minerals. There have the industrial importance the ores of the non-ferrous and ferrous metals, of the non-metallic minerals, the rock salt, bentonitic clays, perlites, refractory clays, diatomites, travertines, pumices, tuffs and tuffaceous lavas, basalts, granites, andesites, andesite-basalts, marbles, marbled limestones, and so on. There have been identified the industrial clusters of the semi-precious and ornamental stones (agate, amethyst, turquoise, jasper, obsidian).
In the reserves of the molybdenum ores, Armenia holds one of the leading places within the USSR. There is situated within the Kapan district the Kajaran deposit, which represents by itself the stockwork with the veinous-interspersed copper-molybdenum ores, which are by the way containing rhenium, selenium, tellurium, bismuth, and so on. The deposit is hydrothermal, and is confined to the monzonite intrusion of the northern part of the Megrin pluton. There is located within the south-eastern part of Armenia the Agarak copper-molybdenum hydrothermal deposit, which is confined to the same pluton. The copper ores of the hydrothermal genesis of the Kapan deposit are represented by the veinous and veinous-interspersed mineralization within the Middle Jurassic volcanogenic rocks. There are known at the north of Armenia the Shamlugh and Alaverdi deposits of the copper ores of the veinous type, which are embedded within the Middle Jurassic volcanogenic rocks. Of the iron ore deposits, there are known the Abovyan (Kaputan) one, at the distance of 30 kilometres from the Yerevan city to the north-west, with the explored reserves of the apatite-magnetitic ores of approximately 244 million tonnes (the average content of Fe is 27.6%), the Hrazdan deposit of the magnetitic ores with the reserves of 50 million tonnes (the content of Fe is 32%), the Svarants deposit (the average content of Fe is approximately 20%). The assumed reserves of the rock salt within Armenia are estimated at several billion tonnes. The Avan deposit of the rock salt represents by itself the small place of the huge (approximately 800 square kilometres) Yerevan salt-bearing basin, it is confined to the gypsum-bearing-salt-bearing stratum of the Miocene age; the explored reserves of the deposit are more than 60 million tonnes, the explored reserves of the entire basin are more than 400 million tonnes.
The bentonitic clays (more than 70 million tonnes) have been discovered within the Sarigyugh deposit, which is situated within the Ijevan district. The clays are represented by the tabular body among the volcanogenic rocks and sub-volcanic intrusions of the Upper Cretaceous age, on the account of the hydrothermal alteration of which these clays have been formed. The clays have the high adsorption properties. The depositions of the refractory raw materials have been explored within the Shorzha deposit on the north-eastern shore of the Lake Sevan. The deposit has formed itself on the account of the alteration of the serpentinized dunites. The reserves of the raw materials, which are suitable for the manufacturing of the forsterite products, are 20 million tonnes. There exist within Armenia the large reserves of perlite (160 million tonnes). The Aragats deposit of perlite is located at the south-western spurs of the Aragats mountain, it is confined to the dome-shaped volcanic Arteni structure of the Quaternary age. The explored reserves of the perlites (the coefficient of expansion is from 9 to 16) are 24.1 million cubic metres. The forecasted reserves are determined at several billion cubic metres. Among the non-metallic building materials, there hold the special place the variously coloured volcanic tuffs and tuffaceous lavas of the Artik type, which have found the usage as the facing material for the construction of the buildings and built structures. The Artik deposit of these useful minerals is located within the district of the same name; its area is more than 250 square kilometres, the average thickness of the deposition is 6-7 kilometres. On the explored area (10 square kilometres), the reserves of the tuff are 143 million cubic metres. There are widely distributed travertines; their reserves, which have been calculated only at the non-significant part of the Ararat deposit (at the distance of 50 kilometres from the Yerevan city to the south), amount to 250 million tonnes. There exist the deposits of marble.
There have been identified on the territory of Armenia the medicinal mineral waters, on the base of which there function the known resorts: Hankavan, Arzni, Jermuk, Dilijan, and others.
The history of the development of the mineral resources. The start of the usage of the rocks (flint, obsidian) by the human persons on the territory of Armenia belongs to the Lower Paleolithic (500-35 thousand years ago). The flint and obsidian implements were used till the epoch of the early metal. Since the epoch of the Neolithic (6th-4th millennium BC), there start to be widely used the clays for the crafting of the crockery and for the construction of the houses, although the usage of the iron ore minerals (ochre) for the ritual purposes is noted yet since the Stone Age.
During the Bronze Age (from the middle of the 4th to the start of the 1st millennia BC), there was situated within Armenia one of the largest centres for the extraction of the copper ore and smelting of the metal. The medieval and modern mine workings have destroyed most of the earliest small funnel-shaped excavations and exploratory shafts. However, there exist the definite evidences, that the earliest developments concentrated themselves within the regions of the northern Armenia, namely, the Alaverdi-Kirovokan group of the deposits (Alaverdi, Shamlugh, Akhtala, and others), probably also Antonovskoe, and within the regions of the southern Armenia, namely, the Zangezur group of the deposits (Kapan, Kajaran, and others). Since the middle of the 4th millennium BC, there are possibly developed the arsenic ores (the Metsdzor, Solvartin, and also Daridag deposits on the territory of the Nakhchivan ASSR), which were used as the ligatures during the manufacturing of the bronzes. For these same purposes, they extract the antimony ores (possibly the Angehtun, Manaskert deposits) since the middle of the 3rd millennium. The relatively large quantity of the tin items from the Lchashen burial at the middle of the 2nd millennium BC on the shore of the Lake Sevan invokes the assumption about the probable local ore sources of the tin. Since this same time, the tin bronzes become the dominant type of the alloys. At least since the start of the 1st millennium BC, there are used on the large scales the iron ore deposits (probably Agartsin, Varazhnunik, and others). At the same time, the usage of the copper ore deposits, which have been listed, does not stop till the Middle Ages and modern time.
During the Middle Ages, there were being developed the Akhtala silver-lead deposit, polymetallic deposits of Zangezur, and copper deposits of the Alaverdi group. The systematic development of the Akhtala, Alaverdi, and Shamlugh deposits belongs to the middle of the 18th century. During the 1760-70-ies, there have been constructed the Akhtala and Shamlugh copper smelting plants. During the invasions of Omar Khan the Lezgian during the 1785, and of Agha Mohammad Khan the Persian during the 1795, the Akhtala, Alaverdi, and Shamlugh plants and mines have been destructed. After the inclusion of the territory of Caucasus into the structure of the Russian state (the start of the 19th century), the specialized expeditions have been sent there for the studying of the mineral resources. Since the 1886, the "French company of the Akhtala mines" corporation has again started the development of the Alaverdi and Shamlugh copper deposits. During the 1900, this company has transferred its rights to the "Caucasian industrial-metallurgical society", which was leasing since the 1912 also the Privolninskoe polymetallic deposit, and was owning since the 1915 the "Dragil-Zami" and "Gyumush-Mağara" polymetallic mines within Zangezur. The ore arrived into Alaverdi town into the "Manes" plant. Besides these deposits, there were being intensively developed during the 19th century the copper and polymetallic deposits within the southern Armenia, namely, the Agarak, Kapan, Pirdoudan (Kajaran), and others. There have been constructed the Agarak, Pirdoudan, Katar, and Galidzor copper smelting plants. During the 1847-67, there have been constructed within Armenia the 11 new copper smelting plants (including the 7 plants within Zangezur). During the 60-ies of the 19th century, Armenia held the leading place within the Transcaucasia in the smelting of copper (up to 99%).
The mining industry. The dynamics of the extraction of the certain useful minerals within Armenia is listed within the Table.
See on the map the placement of the facilities of the mining industry of Armenia.
|(Table) The extraction of the mineral raw materials|
|The mineral raw material||1950||1960||1970||1980|
|The refractory raw materials, thousand tonnes||8.8||65||52||-|
|The rock salt, thousand tonnes||-||-||25||171.5|
|The bentonitic clay, thousand tonnes||-||-||227||404|
|The facing material, thousand cubic metres||291.6||493||1406||1867|
|The building stone, thousand cubic metres||71.9||1596||1717||1962|
|Limestone, thousand tonnes||139.6||56||1615||2357|
|Perlite, thousand cubic metres||-||-||1570||2455|
|Natural aggregate, thousand cubic metres||296.4||1358||1474||4941|
The industrial extraction of the ores of the non-ferrous metals. There are the base of the raw materials for the production of the copper and molybdenum concentrates the copper-molybdenum ores of the Kajaran and Agarak deposits, and also the copper ores of the Kapan and Shamlugh deposits. On the basis of the first one, there works since the 1952 the Zangezur copper-molybdenum combined enterprise. The Agarak deposit is used since the 1963. Thanks to the small thickness of the overburden, they develop the Kajaran and Agarak deposits by the open pit method, the Kapan deposit by both the open pit and underground methods, the Shamlugh deposit by the underground method. The copper-lead-zinc ores are extracted by the underground method within the Akhtala mine of the Alaverdi mining-metallurgical combined enterprise, and are beneficiated at the local flotation plant. More than 90% of the total extraction of the ore of the non-ferrous metals is extracted by the open pit method. There work at the open pit mines the excavators (power shovels), heavy load dump trucks, roller cone drilling rigs. There get the distribution at the underground works the complexes of the self-propelled drilling, loading, delivering machines. There is used at the underground mines the system with the stowing of the goaf space. There work at the beneficiation plants the ball and rod mills, there have been introduced the mills for the ball-less self-grinding with the large volume. The ores are beneficiated by the flotation.
The industrial extraction of the non-metallic building materials is conducted on the base of the numerous industrial depositions of the decorative stone, namely, of the coloured volcanic tuffs, perlites, scorias, granites, andesites, diatomites, marbles, limestones. There work more than 50 mechanized quarries and enterprises of the cement-slate, stone processing, glass-porcelain-faience production, which are producing the wall and facing stones, processed porous natural aggregates, concrete and reinforced concrete products and structures, portland cement, ceramics and glass. There are the large enterprises the "Artiktuf", "Armsteklo", "Armmramor" productive consortia, the "Kirnerud" combined enterprise, the Nurits and Kirovakan stone processing plants, the "Anipemza" combined enterprise, the "Aragats perlite" plant, the Ararat cement-slate and Hrazdan cement plants, and others. Part of the produce is shipped into the other economic regions of the USSR, and also into the foreign countries (perlite). The non-metallic building materials are extracted by the open pit method. There are used for the overburden stripping works the bulldozers, scrapers, and excavators. The extraction of the stone blocks is performed by the stone-cutting machines with the circular saws, and also by the blasting method. There are produced within Armenia more than 50 types of the products and materials of the natural stone, which are used mainly for the facing of the buildings. There is planned the increase of the production of the facing materials of the natural stone, natural porous aggregates, cement, glass, ceramics, and other produce.
The extraction of the other useful minerals. The high quality industrial reserves of the iron ore, which have been explored, of the Hrazdan and Kaputan deposits, are the base for the development of the ferrous metallurgy. The significant reserves of the ultrabasic rocks are promising for the creation of the industry of the magnesian-forsterite refractories. The Tumanyan plant of the refractory bricks works, using the local refractory clay, and also the delivered raw materials. The electrical insulating woven fabric is produced at the Sevan plant from the volcanic rocks. Within the neighbourhoods of the Yerevan city, by the method of the borehole underground dissolution, and also by the underground mine method, there are being developed the large depositions of the rock salt with the thickness of 150-700 metres. Besides the food industry, the salt, which has been extracted, is consumed by the chemical industry. The "Ijevan bentonite" combined enterprise produces from the bentonite clays the raw materials for the petroleum and petrochemical industry, metallurgy, agriculture, and so on. Of the precious stones, there is extracted within Armenia the turquoise (mainly of the 2nd grade) by the "Armkvartssamotsvety" consortium within the overburden of the zone of oxidation of the Teghut copper-molybdenum deposit.
Besides the extraction of the useful minerals, there is performed within Armenia the large amount of the construction of the underground built structures. During the 1980, there has been completed the construction of the unique Arpa - Sevan tunnel; there has been completed the first phase of the construction of the Yerevan metropolitan subway. There is conducted the construction of the series of the railways, hydraulic-technical and other tunnels.
The protection of the underground resources and the recultivation of the lands. The disturbance of the lands is mainly associated with the extraction of the non-metallic useful minerals, ores of the non-ferrous metals, construction of the roads and gas pipelines. There occupy the significant areas the dumps of the overburden rocks, and the tailing facilities of the beneficiation plants.
The areas of the disturbed lands, which are subject to restoration, amount to 6449 hectares (1981); 3981 hectares of them are in operation, 2468 hectares are subject to recultivation. There is planned on these areas the agricultural recultivation, namely, the creation of the arable lands (30% of the disturbed areas), hayfields (10%), pastures (25%), ponds for the production of the fish (10%), forest plantations (25%). There performs the design works on the recultivation of the lands the "Armgoszemproekt" institute, the receiving of them into the operation the special commission at the district executive committees of the Soviets of the people's deputies, with the participation of the representatives of the Ministry of agriculture of the Armenian SSR. There are conducted the works on the usage of the wastes of the mining-extracting industry, are introduced the waste-free technologies. For example, the metallurgical slags from the production of copper are used for the obtainment of cement, the wastes, which have formed themselves during the extraction of marble, basalt, tuff are used for the production of the concrete and reinforced concrete structures.
The scientific institutions. In the field of the geology and mining craft, there conduct the researches: the Geological institute (has been founded during the 1935, the Yerevan city) deals with the problems of the stratigraphy and petrography, of the tectonics of the Caucasus, the regularities of distribution of the ores of the non-ferrous and ferrous metals; the Institute of the geophysics and engineering seismology (has been founded during the 1961, the Leninakan city) deals with the issues of the structure of the Earth's crust, of the engineering seismology, of the seismic resistance of the built structures, of the forecast of the earthquakes, and so on; the Stone and silicates institute deals with the study of the physical-technical, physical-chemical properties of the natural stone materials, and the issues of their usage within the national economy; the "Armniiprotsvetmet" institute (has been founded during the 1953, the Yerevan city) deals with the development, implementation of the technology of the mastering of the deposits of the useful minerals, the issues of the rational usage of the mineral raw materials, and so on; the Yerevan polytechnic institute (has been founded during the 1933) deals with the researches for the perfecting of the technology for the development of the deposits of the useful minerals.
The educational institutions and the training of the cadres. The training of the engineering cadres for the mining industry is performed by the mining-metallurgical faculty of the Yerevan polytechnic institute. They train there the mining engineers for the underground and open pit development of the deposits of the useful minerals, and the mining engineers for the construction of the underground built structures and mines, for the beneficiation of the useful minerals, for the technique and technology of the geological-explorative works. There belong to the structure of the faculty the departments of the mining craft, geology, and metallurgy. There are issued by the geological faculty of the Yerevan university the specialists of the various profiles, including those for the geological survey, geophysics, and so on. There is located within the Kapan town the Mining college.
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