Argentina

(Map) Argentina
ARGENTINA
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ARGENTINA (Argentina; RU: Аргентина), the Argentine Republic (Republica Argentina), is the country, which is occupying the south-eastern part of the South America continent, the eastern part of the Tierra del Fuego island, the nearby Isla de los Estados island, and other islands. It borders at the west with Chile, at the north and north-east with Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazil, Uruguay. It is washed at the east with the waters of the Atlantic ocean. The area is 2780.1 thousand square kilometres (without the Falkland (or Malvinas) Islands, which are the disputed territory). The population is 27.8 million persons (1980). The capital is the Buenos Aires city. Argentina comprises 22 provinces, the territories of the Tierra del Fuego and the islands of the Southern Atlantic, the Federal (capital city) district. The official language is Spanish. The currency is the argentine peso. Argentina is the member of the OAS (Organization of the American States), SELA (Latin American Economic System), and others.

General characteristic of the economy. Among the countries in the region, Argentina stands out with the more complex structure of industrial production, and with the relatively high degree of development of the mechanical engineering. The GDP of Argentina is 53.6 billion dollars (in terms of the 1980 prices); its structure (%) is: 12.9% agriculture and fishing, 25.3% processing industry, 2.5% extracting industry, 3.5% electricity, gas and water supply, 10.9% transport and communication, 7.6% construction, 14% commerce and personal services, 8.8% finances, 14.5% other types of activity.

During the 2nd half of the 1970-ies, the industry satisfied approximately 85% of the national needs for the industrial raw materials and semi-finished products, almost 100% for the building materials, and 75% for machinery and equipment. The share of the value of the products of the mining-extracting industry within the industrial production of Argentina is 4.3% (1979). The government-owned enterprises (8.57% of GDP) are concentrated mainly within the field of the public services, oil and coal industry, production of the electrical power, and also within the metallurgy, petrochemistry, and military industry. During the 70-ies, there intensified the penetration of the foreign capital into the economy of Argentina. During the 1979, the total amount of the private foreign investments has amounted to 5 billion dollars, of which the share of the USA has accounted for 40%. There are 1400 companies within Argentina, which belong to the foreign capital, which controlled during the middle of the 70-ies 30% of the industrial production of Argentina. The structure of the fuel-energy balance (1978, %) is: 3.0% solid fuel, 66.3% liquid fuel, 5.0% hydraulic electrical power, 24.2% natural gas, 1.5% atomic energy. There works within the country the nuclear power plant ("Atucha-I") with the capacity of 367 megawatt, there is being built the second nuclear power plant ("Embalses") within the Córdoba city with the design capacity of 600 megawatts, there is scheduled by 1987 the commissioning of the third nuclear power plant ("Atucha-II") with the capacity of 600 megawatts. During the 1981, there has been produced within Argentina 36.3 billion kilowatt-hours of the electrical energy.

The main role for the internal transportations, including for the delivery of the export cargo into the ports, and also for the communication with all the neighbouring countries, belongs to the rail transport (the property of the government); the length of the railways if 39 thousand kilometres (1980), the cargo turnover is 18.6 million tonnes (1979). There increases for the internal transportations the role of the automobile transport (the length of the automobile roads is more than 1 million kilometres, including 46.2 thousand kilometres of the ones with the hard pavement). The tonnage of the merchant fleet (approximately 40% belongs to the government) is 3.07 million gross register tonnes, including 1.04 million gross register tonnes (1980) of the tanker fleet. The main marine port is the Buenos Aires city. The length of the river shipping lines is approximately 3 thousand kilometres. The total length of the gas pipelines is more than 12 thousand kilometres. There are available five trunk oil pipelines with the total length of 2221 kilometres.

Nature. The relief of the country at the east is mostly flat (Gran Chaco plain, flat plain between the Parana and Uruguay rivers, La Plata lowland, Patagonian plateau), at the west is mountainous (the mountain chains of the Andes with the highest point of the South America, namely, the Aconcagua mountain, 6960 metres). The territory of Argentine is situated within the tropical, subtropical, and temperate belts of the Southern hemisphere. The average temperature during January (summer) at the north is 28 degrees Celsius, at the south is 10 degrees Celsius, and during July, respectively, is 18 degrees Celsius and 1 degree Celsius. The quantity of the athmospheric precipitation at the north-east is 1400-1600 millimetres per year, at the east of the Pampa is approximately 1000 millimetres, within the Patagonia is 100-300 millimetres, and within the Pune is up to 100 millimetres. The main rivers are the Parana, Paraguay, Uruguay (the recited ones are navigable), and also the Chubut, Rio Negro, Rio Colorado. The vegetation within Argentina is represented mainly with the wet meadow steppes (mostly plowed), with savannas, and with mountainous subtropical forests.

Geological structure. There are distinguished within Argentina the following major structural elements: southern edge of the ancient South American plate at the north-east, Patagonian epi-Paleozoic plate at the south, eastern part of the Andean fold system at the west, and pre-Andean foredeep, which is separating them. The pre-Cambrian formations of the ancient plate are overlain by the sedimentary cover of the marine depositions of the Early and Middle Paleozoic, and of the continental depositions of the Upper Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic. The rocks of the basement and of the bottom of the cover stand out within the uplifts of the sierras of the Buenos Aires province (Sierra de la Ventana, Sierra del Tandil). To the south, within the Patagonian plate, the folded basement comes up within the Samuncura and Deseado massifs, which are formed with the Upper pre-Cambrian and partially Lower and Middle Mesozoic metamorphites, which have been breached with Upper Paleozoic granites, and unconformably overlain with the Upper Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic marine and continental volcanogenic and clastic rocks, which are filling deep (down to 6 kilometres) Colorado and San Jorge downfolds, which are opening within the Atlantic ocean. At the south, Patagonian plate is separated from the Andes with the pre-Andean downfold, which represents itself as the system of the depressions of various ages. Northern depressions are filled with the depositions of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic with maximal thickness of 13 kilometres, southern depressions (Mendoza, Neuquén, Magellan) are filled with Meso-Cenozoic depositions with the thickness of more than 9 kilometres. Within the Andean fold system, the dislocated, metamorphosed, and breached with granite, marine sedimentary and effusive rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic are unconformably overlain with continental and volcanogenic formations of Cenozoic. The folding movements proceeded here during the pre-Triassic and Cenozoic time, and were accompanied with thrusts, especially at the south, where they are directed towards the Magellan downfold.

(Table 1) The reserves of the major useful minerals (1981)
Useful mineral Reserves The content of the useful component, %
total proven
Oil (1), million tonnes - 346 -
Natural gas, billion cubic metres - 623 -
Coal, million tonnes 400 400 -
Uranium ores (2), thousand tonnes 23 - 0.1-0.2
Iron ores, million tonnes 392 174 45.0
Tungsten ores (2), thousand tonnes 5 5 0.4-1.1
Molybdenum ores (3), thousand tonnes 180 130 0.018
Copper ores (3), thousand tonnes 6000 4000 0.6-1.0
Lead ores (3), thousand tonnes 900 900 6.7-11.0
Zinc ores (3), thousand tonnes 1000 500 7.0-16.0
Tin ores (3), thousand tonnes 20 10 0.4
Beryllium ores (2), thousand tonnes 100 - 12
Fluorite, thousand tonnes 4000 - -
(1) Proven and probable, (2) In terms of oxides, (3) In terms of metal

Useful minerals. The deep of the earth of Argentina are poorly studied. There are known the deposits of oil, gas, of the ores of uranium, copper, lead, zinc, beryllium (Table 1). Argentina holds the third place in the reserves of oil and gas within the Latin America. There have been identified within the territory the 5 oil-and-gas-bearing basins, four of which are situated within the depressions of the pre-Andean downfold. There are known within the country the 243 oil fields and 52 gas fields (1981), which are concentrated mainly within the Neuquén (82 of oil and 24 of gas) and San Jorge (93 and 10 respectively) basins. There are oil-and-gas-bearing the sandy depositions of Mesozoic (the Mendoza, Neuquén, San Jorge, Magellan) and Cenozoic (San Jorge and Magellan). The largest deposits are: of oil, namely, Comodoro Rivadavia, El-Cayce, Barrancas, and others; of gas (and gas condensate), namely, Loma, La Plata, Campo Duran, Madre Hones, Condor.

Argentina holds the 7th place in the reserves of coal within the Latin America. The largest mineral coal basin, namely, Rio Turbio (the total reserves are 350 million tonnes), is situated within the Santa Cruz province, and is confined to the coal-bearing stratum of Cretaceous, Paleogene, Miocene, within the southern part of the Patagonian plate.

Argentina holds the 2nd place in the reserves of uranium within the Latin America. The deposits are infiltrative within the sedimentary rocks, and hydrothermal. The largest deposit is the Sierra Pintada (the total reserves are 12 thousand tonnes, the content of U3O8 is 0.12%), the Don Otto, Rodolfo, and other deposits are less significant.

The major reserves of the iron ores (the 7th place within the Latin America) are associated with the Lower Paleozoic ferruginous formations at the north-west; there are promising the analogous depositions within Patagonia. The most significant deposits of the iron ores are: the Sierra Grande within the Rio Negro province (the total reserves are 200 million tonnes, the content of Fe is 40%), the Zapla (Sierra Zapla) within the Jujuy province (respectively, 110 million tonnes, 45%).

The reserves of manganese ores within Argentina are insignificant, the largest deposit is the Farallon Negro (the proven reserves are approximately 800 thousand tonnes, the content of Mn is 16%). The ores also contain gold (9 grams per tonne) and silver (16 grams per tonne). There is promising the Alto de la Blenda region, where potential resources are estimated at 3 million tonnes.

There is known within Argentina the series of deposits of the copper ores of the copper-porphyry and molybdenum-copper-porphyry types. They are associated with the calcareous-alkaline magmatic rocks of the Late Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene ages (the largest deposit is the El Pachon), and with the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian intrusions (Bajo de la Alumbrera, the total reserves are 430 million tonnes of ore).

The deposits of the lead-zinc ores are associated with the Early Paleozoic intrusions of granites, namely, the Aguilar (El Aguilar) deposit, Jujuy province. The reserves of the tungsten ores are concentrated mainly within the numerous small deposits, among which there is prominent the Los Condores deposit (the reserves are 3 thousand tonnes of WO3). Small deposits of the tin ores are situated on the southern extension of the tin-ore belt of Bolivia.

Argentina has significant deposits of the ores of beryllium, it holds the 2nd place in its reserves within the Latin America. All known resources of beryllium are concentrated within the pegmatites of the crystalline basement, namely, the Las Tapias (the total reserves are 30 thousand tonnes), Las Palomas, La Esmeralda, and other deposits. There are also associated with pegmatites the deposits of the tantalum and niobium ores within the sierras of Pampa. There are within Argentina also the deposits of barite (Orheta, Diamante), fluorite (Nolasco, Ilda, and others), sulfur (Cerro-Tuxtla, Overo, Puenche), borates (Porvenir, Blankita), asbestos (Irma, Teresa, Susana), mica (Catamarca, Abundancia, and others), and so on.

(Table 2) The extraction of the major types of the mineral raw materials
The type of the mineral raw material 1913 1917 1920 1940 1950 1960 1970 1979 1980
Oil (with condensate), million tonnes 0.1 0.2 0.2 3 3.3 8.9 20.9 24.3 25
Natural gas (marketable), billion cubic metres - - - 0.4 0.6 1.4 6.0 8.7 9.9
Mineral coal, million tonnes - - - - 0.03 0.3 0.6 0.7 0.4
Iron ores, million tonnes - - - - 0.1 0.2 0.3 1.4 1.6
Beryllium ores (3), thousand tonnes - - - 0.5 0.4 0.76 0.52 0.3 0.3
Tungsten ores (1), thousand tonnes 0.6 - 0.2 1.4 0.2 0.8 0.3 0.1 0.1
Gold, tonnes - - - 0.4 0.25 0.11 - 0.17 -
Tin ores (2), thousand tonnes - - - 1.5 0.3 0.2 1.2 0.4 0.6
Lead ores (2), thousand tonnes - - 3 29.9 23.0 26.7 35.6 31 32
Silver ores (2), tonnes 1 - - 11.5 36 52 77.5 81 82
Zinc ores (2), thousand tonnes - - - 37 13 28.6 39 37 33.7
Rock salt, thousand tonnes - - - 292.7 - - 958 990 -
Sulfur, thousand tonnes - - - - 8.0 39.9 40.0 35.0 20.0
Fluorite, thousand tonnes - - - 0.5 5.0 12.5 29.6 38.0 30.0
Graphite, tonnes - - - 100 - 490 76 100 -
Kaolin, thousand tonnes - - - - - 41 74.4 81.6 -
Mica (4), tonnes - - 100 (5) 442 1071 86 (6) 740 2288 -
(1) In terms of BeO, (2) 60% concentrate of WO3, (3) In terms of the extracted metal, (4) The cumulative extraction, (5) The data for the 1930, (6) The sheet mica

Mining industry. Historical outline. Aborigines extracted gold and silver from the deep of the earth within the north-eastern part of Argentina yet before the 15th century. With the arrival of the European conquerors, during the 16th century, there was continued the extraction of these metals (the Kapilitas, Famatina, Kulampaha, and Cerro-Bajo deposits). There were known since the 17th century within Argentina the natural oil manifestations; the extraction of oil has been started just during the 1865 within the Jujuy province by the "Compañía Jujeña de Kerosene" company; there has unfolded during the 1879 the petroleum prospecting works the "Feodosio López" company (Jujuy province), during the 1880, the "Feofilo Sanches de Bustamante" company (Salta and Jujuy provinces), during the 1886, the "Compañía Mendocina de Petróleo" company (Mendoza province), and so on. Since the 2nd half of the 19th century, there have been started to extract the ores of copper and lead (Kapilitas, Famatina, Gualilan, Paramilos de Uspallata, El Tontal, and other deposits), during the start of the 20th century, also the ores of vanadium, tin, tungsten, the borates, marble, granites, gypsum, mica, rock salt, and so on. In 1907, there has been discovered the large Comodoro Rivadavia oil field (Chubut province), and there has been established the governmental oil company, the first within the Argentina and Latin America, which has been transformed in 1922 into the "Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales" company.

General characteristic. The major part of the deposits, which are developed, is concentrated within the mountainous regions at the west and north-west of the country (see the map). The share of the products of Argentina within the mining industry of the Latin America is 8.2% (1979). Despite the availability of the resources, the extraction of the useful minerals (Table 2) satisfies only 1/4 of the domestic demand of the country, and there are spent for their import more than 0.5 billion dollars per year.

The share of the mining industry within the GDP has increased in association with significant increasing of the oil prices. Argentina has got in the 1979 the 4th place within the Latin America (after Venezuela, Mexico, Brazil) in the value of products (2.1 billion dollars, at the prices of the mineral raw materials during the 1975) of this industry. Within the structure of the industry, there hold the 1st and 2nd places (1979) the extraction of oil (89%) and natural gas (5.6%), then the extraction of the non-ferrous (2.0%), ferrous (1.2%), and noble (0.6%) metals, uranium (0.2%), coal (0.5%), and non-metallic ores (0.9%), not including the building materials. The leading position within the industry belongs to the governmental sector. In 1979, there has been adopted the law on the mining industry, the goal of which is the further development of the industry, on account of both the governmental financing, and the private capital. At the same time, there has been facilitated the access of the foreign capital into this industry. During the 1977-79, 38.9% of all the foreign investments belonged to the mining industry (including the oil-gas one). The prospects of the mining industry are associated with the increasing of the extraction of oil and gas, of the iron ores, and also with the development of the deposits of the copper ores (El Pachon), of uranium (Sierra Pintada deposit), and of other useful minerals.

The significant part of the products of the mining industry is consumed within Argentina. At the same time, Argentina imports the large quantity of the raw materials for the metallurgical industry, of coal, of metals. The import of oil decreases. The share of the products of the mining industry within the export of Argentina is insignificant, namely, 0.9% (1979), including the mineral fuel is 0.6%, ores and concentrates of metals are 0.2%, salt, sulfur, clays, and others are 0.1%. During the 1979, Argentina has exported the products of the mining-extracting industry, which have amounted to 69.6 million dollars. The major importers are the Great Britain, West Germany, and the countries of the Latin America (mainly Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay). The share of the products of the mining industry within the import of Argentina during the 1979 was 21.2%, including the mineral fuel is 15.7%, ores and concentrates of metals are 4.6%, others are 0.9%. The import of the goods of this group was estimated at 1421.3 million dollars (1979).

Oil and gas industry. Argentina holds the 3rd place in the volume of the extraction of oil among the countries of the Latin America, behind the Venezuela and Mexico. There are satisfied approximately 93% of the needs of the country for hydrocarbons on the account of the oil and gas, which are extracted within the country. The oil industry of Argentina has formed itself as independent branch of the industry during the 1908, in association with the start of the industrial development of the Comodoro Rivadavia oil field. According to the first national law on the oil, one part of this field has been assigned to the "Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales" ("YPF") governmental company, another part has been assigned to the "Royal Dutch-Shell" foreign monopoly, and to the "Astra" local one. The development of the fields has later started within the Mendoza, Río Negro, Neuquén, Jujuy, Salta, and other provines. The gas is extracted within Argentina since the 1922.

Till the 1958, the "YPF" company basically controlled the extraction of oil within the country. After the 1958, there has intensified the penetration of the foreign monopolies into the oil industry of Argentina, the activity of which has activated in association with the law of the 1967 (there has been permitted to any private companies not only to conclude the "contracts for the services", but also the concession agreements for the exploration and extraction of the oil within the undeveloped areas for the duration of 25-30 years). In the 1977, the government of Argentina has reorganized the "YPF" company into corporation with the retention of the controlling stake in the hands of the government.

In the 1980, 68% of the oil has been extracted in Argentina on the account of "YPF", the remaining 32% has been extracted on the account of the 19 private companies (national and foreign), which are acting either independently, or under contract (the largest of them are the "ATOSO" and "Cities Service"). The company conducts the policy of the active involvement of the foreign firms into the exploratory works for oil and gas, and into the development of the oil fields. The cumulative extraction of oil has amounted to 468 million tonnes, of gas to approximately 183 billion cubic metres (1980); the quantity of the active gushing drilled wells is 497, of the mechanized ones is 6325. The density of the oil, which is extracted, ranges from 740 to 930 kilograms per cubic metre. During the 1978-80, private foreign and Argentine companies have intensified the activity for the exploration of the oil fields within the northern part of Argentina and on the continental coastal shelf. The French "Total-Cie", West German "DEMINEX", Argentine "Ar-Franca" and "Bridas S. A. petrolera" companies conduct the exploration for oil on the coastal shelf near the Tierra del Fuego island, the "Shell Hydrocarbons B. W.", "Shell Co. Argentina de petróleo", and "Petrolar S. A." companies conduct the exploration inside the Strait of Magellan and on the coastal shelf near the Rio Gallegos city, the "Louis Ingenieuring S. A.", "Petrolar S. A.", "Tekint S. A." companies conduct the exploration at the oil fields within the Salta province. During the 1980, there have been drilled within Argentina the record quantity of the drilled wells during all the previous years, namely, approximately 970 with the total drilled length of 2.0 million metres. Average depth of the drilled wells, which have been drilled during the 1977-80, is approximately 2000 metres. There was conducted the active exploratory marine (offshore) drilling on the coastal shelf near the Tierra del Fuego island.

Gas fields are situated at the great distance from the centres of consumption, because of this the "Gas del Estado" governmental gas company performs the construction of the long trunk gas pipelines. There work within Argentina several systems of the gas pipelines, which deliver the gas to the places of consumption. Gas is transported from the fields of the Strait of Magellan, San-Jorge (Chubut and Santa-Cruz provinces), and Neuquen (Neuquen and Rio Negro provinces) basins through the Southern system of the gas pipelines into the Bahia Blanca and Buenos Aires cities. It comprises three trunk gas pipelines, and installations for the collection, purification, and pumping of gas. The total length of the system is more than 8.5 thousand kilometres. The system of the Tierra del Fuego island connects the individual gas fields of the island. During the 1979, there has been laid the gas pipeline with the length of 37 kilometres (24 kilometres of them pass within the sea), which connects the system of the gas pipelines of the Tierra del Fuego island and the Southern one. Gas is transported from Bolivia and the gas fields of the Central-pre-Andean basin (Salta and Jujuy provinces) through the Northern system (1767 kilometres) into the Buenos Aires city. In the 1981, there has started to function the gas pipeline (1081 kilometres), which is connecting the western gas fields with the central and eastern regions. They transport oil and oil products through several pipelines. There belong to the list of the major ones the Plaza Uinkul - Bahia Blanca (the length is 665 kilometres) oil pipeline, and the Campo Duran - San Lorenzo (1480 kilometres) product pipeline. The productive capacity of the 13 oil processing plants, which are working within Argentina, is estimated at 114 thousand tonnes per day. Approximately 75% of productive capacity of the oil processing plants belong to the "YPF" company, the remaining part belongs to the "Shell" and "Esso" American companies.

Coal industry. The industrial extraction of coal has started during the 2nd World War, 1939-45. During the 50-ies years, there were extracted 100-300 thousand tonnes annually, during the 60-ies, there were extracted 400-500 thousand tonnes annually, during the the early 70-ies, there were extracted up to 600 thousand tonnes of the ROM (run-of-mine) coal annually, since the early 80-ies, the extraction oscillates at approximately 500 thousand tonnes annually. The share of coal within the extraction of the energetic raw materials within Argentina is approximately 1.1%, and within the consumption is 2.5%. The coal is extracted by the "Yacimientos Carboníferos Fiscales" ("YCF") governmental company at the "Rio Turbio" underground mine, where the 6 mechanized long wall stopes are working, 5 of them are equipped with plows, one is equipped with the twin-screw narrow-width combined cutter-loader machine. There is available the coal preparation plant with productive capacity of 750 thousand tonnes per year. The heat of combustion of the coal is 25 megajoules per kilogram, the ash content is 11%. Low productivity of the labour (less than 1 tonne per shift per worker), and the remoteness from the centres of consumption (the cost of delivery is 40% of the total cost) diminish the economic feasibility of the developments. The coal is used by the electrical power plants, and for the addition to the imported coals into the charge during coking.

Extraction of other useful minerals. There are extracted within the country the ores of uranium, iron, tungsten, lead, zinc, tin, gold, silver, beryllium, and many nonmetallic useful minerals.

The major deposits of the uranium ores are located within the Mendoza and Córdoba provinces. Argentina is one of the few developing countries, which is conducting its own extraction and beneficiation of uranium ores. From the 1977, there is developed the Sierra Pintada deposit of uranium ores within the Mendoza province. There work three plants there for the production of the uranium concentrates. The works, which are associated with the prospecting and extraction of uranium ores, and with the production of concentrates, are monitored by the Governmental commission for the atomic energy.

The significant part of the iron ore within Argentina is extracted at the Zapla (Sierra Zapla) deposit within the Jujuy province (approximately 250 thousand tonnes). In the 1974, there has started the development of the promising Sierra Grande deposit within the Rio Negro province by the "Hierro Patogónico de Sierra-Grande" company. There is situated within the Isla Colorado the plant for the production of pellets with the Fe content of 68%. The commissioning of the mine into the full productive capacity (3.6 million tonnes per year) will satisfy the needs of the country for the iron ore for 50%.

Since the 1978, there is performed the extraction of the manganese ore at the Farallon Negro deposit by the "Yacimientos mineros de agua de Dionicio" governmental company. The development is conducted with underground method (chamber method with the stowing of the waste rock into the goaf). The underground mine with 5 working horizons has 3 shafts: one vertical and two inclined. The ore, which has been extracted, is beneficiated with the method of flotation into concentrate with the content of Mn up to 44%. The annual extraction (1980) is 25 thousand tonnes of Mn. The domestic extraction of manganese ores satisfies 1/3 of the need of Argentina for manganese.

The major extraction of the lead-zinc-silver ores within the country (respectively 32, 33, and 0.082 thousand tonnes during the 1980) is conducted at the Aguilar (El Aguilar) deposit by the "Compañía minera Aguilar", which is controlled by the "St. Joe Minerals Corporation" USA monopoly. This same company conducts the preparation for the construction of the mine with the capacity of 100 thousand tonnes of copper per year at the El Pachon deposit.

Argentina holds one of the leading places within the capitalistic world in the extraction of the beryllium ores (after Brazil and the USA). There has been established the extraction of the high-quality ore (the content of BeO is 12%) within the vast pegmatitic zone at the La Beatrice deposits within the San Luis and Las Tapias provinces, within the Córdoba province, and so on. In the end of the 70-ies, there have been restarted within Argentina the works on the development of the deposits of titanium at the south of the Buenos Aires province. There are performed the works for the establishment of the production of magnesium near the salt lake La Amartya within the La Pampa province. There is conducted also the extraction of gold, silver, non-metallic mineral raw materials, namely, of the gypsum, asbestos, sulfur, clay, granite, marble, feldspar, and others.

Geological service. Scientific institutions. Training of the cadres. Publishing. The mining-geological service of Argentina is performed by the Governmental secretariat of geology and mining craft of the Ministry of economy. The scientific researches are conducted within the National institute of geology and mining craft (1964) within the Buenos Aires city, within the Institute of physical geography and geology (1936), within the Museum of mineralogy and geology (1904), and within the universities. They train the mining-geological cadres within the universities within the Buenos Aires, Mendoza, Bahia Blanca, Tucuman cities, within the High school of petroleum engineers at the University of Mendoza, within the Petroleum institute of the "YPF" governmental oil company within the Buenos Aires city, within the Institute of geology and mining craft and within the School of mining craft within the Jujuy city, at the University of the Tucuman city, and so on.