Architectural-building stone products
ARCHITECTURAL-BUILDING STONE PRODUCTS (EN: architectural building products; DE: Bauelemente, Bauteile; FR: articles d'architecture et de construction; ES: materiales arquitecturales de construccion; RU: архитектурно-строительные изделия) are the construction details, which are used for the emphasization of the architectural expressiveness of buildings and other structures, and also as the individual parts and aggregates within their constructions. The usage of the architectural-building products is known yet before the current era (for example, the Acropolis within the Athens city, 5th century BC, the Colosseum within the Rome city, 1st century). There are preserved on the territory of the USSR the numerous historical monuments (the buildings within the Kherson, Kerch cities, 4th century; the temples of the Kiev city, the buildings of the Moscow Kremlin, and others), and modern structures (the Mausoleum of V.I.Lenin, the building of the Moscow State University, the stations of the metropolitan subway, and so on), where have been used the architectural-building products. The major types of the architectural-building products are: columns, bases and capitals of columns, pilasters, window sills, frames of the window openings and portals of the doorways, cornices, stairs and steps, skirting plates, railings, and others.
The architectural-building products are widely used for the construction of the monumental structures, theatres, palaces, administrative buildings, memorials, and monuments. There prevails at the stone processing enterprises the mechanized manufacturing of the architectural-building products. The rocks, which are most commonly used for the production of the architectural-building products, are: granites, gabbro, labradorites, marbles, limestones, dolomites, travertines, volcanic tuffs. The materials are distinguished with their monolithism, strength, moisture resistance, and those ones, which are used for the finishing of the external parts of buildings and structures, with their frost resistance. The climatic conditions especially influence the architectural-building products, which are made of the carbonatic and porous rocks. As the result of the impact of the aggressive environments onto the architectural-building products, there proceeds their premature destruction. The harmful mineralogical impurities within the facing stone, namely, the iron oxides, cause the formation of the rusty stains, which are spoiling the external appearance of the architectural-building products, and are decreasing their strength. The measures for the protection of the architectural-building products are the special protective constructions (canopies, and others), processing of the surface (polishing, grinding), hydrophobization of the surface (especially of the architectural-building products, which are made of the carbonatic rocks).
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