Andean (Cordilleran) geosynclinal fold belt
ANDEAN (CORDILLERAN) GEOSYNCLINAL FOLD BELT (RU: Андский (Кордильерский) геосинклинальный складчатый пояс) is the mobile belt of the earth crust, which is stretching itself along the entire continent of the South America, framing the South American platform (see the "South America" article) at the north, west and south. At the north, it continues into the Antilles-Caribbean regions, and connects with the Cordillera of the North America through the structures of the Isthmus of Panama and Antilles arc; at the south, it connects with the folded belt of the Western Antarctica through the South Sandwich arc.
The start of the development of the belt belongs to the late Proterozoic and covers the entire Phanerozoic. They distinguish within the history of the development the Baikal, Caledonian, Hercynian, and Alpine stages. There had the great importance the Hercynian stage, which has ended at the end of Paleozoic with the folding and introduction of granites. At the end of Cretaceous - start of Paleogene periods, there has occured the main Alpine folding, which was accompanied by the introduction of the batholiths of granitoids along the newly formed anticlinoria. The granitic batholiths are accompanied by the belt of the copper deposits of Chile. At the same time with their introduction, which has started yet in the Jurassic, and also following it, there has powerfully manifested itself the superficial andesitic and more acidic volcanism, which continues itself within the isolated places of the Andes also in the modern epoch, thus witnessing along with the high seismicity about the continuation of the significant tectonic mobility.
There are associated with the young volcanic and sub-volcanic intrusive formations the deposits of the ores of tin, tungsten, and other rare and non-ferrous metals within Peru and Bolivia. It is separated at the eastern belt from the South American platform by the discontinuous strip of the advanced sub-Andean downfolds, which are formed with the Cenozoic molasses; they, together with the Cretaceous depositions, which underly them, contain, especially at the north (Venezuela, Ecuador, northern Peru) and at the extreme south (southern Chile, Argentina), the reservoirs of oil and gas.
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