Anatolian lignite basin

ANATOLIAN LIGNITE BASIN (RU: Анатолийский буроугольный бассейн) is one of the largest by the area of the lignite basins of the world, which is situated within the West (the Manisa and Kutahya provinces) and Central Anatolia (the Çorum, Amasya, and Bolu provinces), within Turkey. The total geological reserves are 3.8 billion tonnes (1978), the significant part of which is suitable for the open-pit extraction.

(map) Anatolian lignite basin
ANATOLIAN LIGNITE BASIN
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There are known within the limits of the Anatolian lignite basin more than 40 deposits (see the map), of which the largest and most industrially developed deposits are Tunçbilek, Kutahya, Seyitemer, Yatagan, Kangal, Beypazarı, Soma, Dodurga, San; there is within the south-eastern part of the Anatolian lignite basin the large Elbistan deposit, which has been discovered in 1967. The coal-bearing capacity of the basin is known since antiquity; the intensive industrial development of the Anatolian lignite basin has started since the 2nd half of the 20th century.

The Anatolian lignite basin is situated on the Anatolian Plateau, within the Alpine folded region. The coal-bearing capacity is associated with the freshwater-continental Oligocene-Miocene depositions with the thickness of 500-2000 metres. The main industrial coal-bearing capacity is associated with the Turgut (Tortonian stage) formation. The coal-bearing depositions are embedded almost horizontally, are disrupted by the faults, and include several complex layers of lignite of the variable thickness (from 0.6-2.5 metres, sometimes up to 80 metres). The content of moisture within the coals is approximately 40%, the ash is 15-35%, the heat of combustion is 11.73-19.56 megajoules per kilogram. The Anatolian lignite basin provides practically all the extraction of the lignite within the country; approximately 85% of the coal is extracted by the open-pit method, the average stripping ratio is 4 cubic metres per tonne.

All large enterprises of the Anatolian lignite basin are grouped into the four state-owned companies, the main of which (approximately 95% of the extraction of the state-owned sector), namely, the "Garp Lignite Intiyaz", operates three largest deposits: Tunçbilek, Soma, and Seyitemer, with the total reserves of 500 million tonnes of coal (1978). The "Alpagut-Dodurga Lignite" company develops the deposits within the regions of the Alpagut-Dodurga and Sorgun settlements with the total reserves of approximately 23 million tonnes of coal (1978). The "Orta-Anatolie Lignite" company operates the Beypazarı deposit with the total reserves of 139 million tonnes. The "Afsin-Elbistan Lignite" company prepares for operation the largest within the country Elbistan deposit with the reserves of 3146 million tonnes. There operate within the Anatolian lignite basin the large quantity of the private enterprises, the extraction by which amounts to 1.5 million tonnes of coal per year. The lignite of the Anatolian lignite basin is used for the generation of electricity (at the power plants), by the enterprises of the cement, sugar, and nitrogen industry, and also within the household sector.