AMMONITES (EN: ammonites; DE: Ammons-prengstoffe; FR: ammonites; ES: amonitas; RU: аммониты) are the powder-like explosive mixtures, the major components of which are the ammonium nitrate and nitro compounds. They sometimes also contain the non-explosive combustible and hydrophobic additives, and salts as flame arresters.
They are used since the 80-ies of the 19th century, within the USSR since 1924. There are most common the waterproof ammonites, which have been created on the basis of the waterproof ammonium nitrate (№ 6 ZhV), ammonite with improved safety (PZhV-20, T-19, and AP-5ZhV), and pressed rocky ammonite (№ 1 ZhW), which is containing RDX. The explosive properties of ammonites depend on their composition and technology of manufacturing. Ammonites are used at the quarries and mines, and also during the welding of the metals by the explosion (welding ammonites, and others). The waterproof ammonites, which are produced within the cartridges, are suitable for the charging of the dry and watered holes and boreholes, and as the live primers (industrial detonators) for the initiation of the granular and slurry (water-containing) explosive substances.
The bulk free flowing ammonites are used within the dry and limitedly watered boreholes, but are not suitable for the mechanized charging due to the excessive dusting (the dust of the ammonites is toxic). Ammonites are hygroscopic and prone to caking with the worsening of their detonative properties. For the prevention of the moistening, they pack ammonites during the storage into the polyethylene packets. The guaranteed storage time of ammonites within the paper package is 6 months, within the polyethylene package is 12 months.
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