AMMONALS (EN: ammonals; DE: Ammonalen; FR: ammonals; ES: amonales; RU: аммоналы) are the ammonium nitrate explosive substances, which are containing as combustive component the powder of metallic aluminium. They have been proposed within 1899 by the German scientist Richard Escales. Ammonals are used within the USSR since the 1930-ies. They are manufactured in the form of the simplest binary mixtures and of the mixtures with more complex composition, which are containing sensitizers, namely, TNT, liquid nitric esters (see the "Detonites" article), RDX, liquid combustive additives (see the "Granulites" article), aqueous gel.
The aerated water-containing ammonals with air bubbles (for example, American ecrymightes) are sensitive to the impulse of the blasting cap. They are named "grammonals" during the production in the granular form. The waterproof ammonal contains the waterproof ammonium nitrate, TNT, and aluminium powder; it is used at the quarries and mines, which are not dangerous because of gas and dust, during the blasting of the strong watered rocks; it is produced only within the cartridges with the diameter of 32-36, 60, 90, 100, and 120 millimetres.
The rocky ammonal is the most powerful of the powdered explosive substances, it is produced within the cartridges of the large diameter, it contains RDX as sensitizer. Thanks to the good detonative capability, it may be also used within the cartridges of the small diameters. The rocky ammonal is used during the heading and retreating mining works within the hard rocks, but, because of the increased sensitivity to the mechanical impacts, it requires greater caution during the handling, than ammonites and waterproof ammonal. The usage in the non-cartridge form and mechanized charging of the cartridges is not recommended; they charge the cartridges only manually. The warranty time of the storage within the paper package is 6 months, within the polyethylene package is 12 months.
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