Algeria

ALGERIA, People's Democratic Republic of Algeria (Arabic: الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية; French: Republique Algerienne Democratique et Populaire), is the country within the North Africa, within the western part of the Mediterranean basin. It borders at the west with Morocco and Western Sahara, at the south- west with Mauritania and Mali, at the south-east with Niger, at the east with Libya and Tunisia. The area is 2382 thousand square kilometres. The population is 20.1 million persons (1981, estimation). The capital city is the Algiers city (الجزائر). Algeria comprises 31 wilayas. The official language is Arabic. The currency is the Algerian dinar. Algeria is the member of the League of Arab States, of the Organization of African Unity, belongs to the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

(Table 1) The reserves of the major types of useful minerals
Useful mineral Reserves The content of the useful component
Total Proven
Oil, million tonnes - 1170 -
Natural gas, billion cubic metres - 2800 -
Mineral coal, million tonnes 100 60 -
Uranium ores (1), thousand tonnes 50 28 0.2
Iron ores, million tonnes 5370 1150 50
Manganese ores, million tonnes 1.5 1.5 45
Copper ores (2), thousand tonnes 200 100 0.8-3.0
Lead ores (2), thousand tonnes 900 500 2.2
Zinc ores (2), thousand tonnes 2000 1200 6.0
Mercury ores (2), thousand tonnes 19 15 0.5-3.8
Antimony ores (2), thousand tonnes 82 58 3.8
Tin ores (2), thousand tonnes 15 4 0.2-1.0
Tungsten ores (1), thousand tonnes 50 22 0.3-1.8
Gold ores, tonnes 90 25 5-32 g/t
Pyrite, thousand tonnes 2000 600 40
Barite, thousand tonnes 5200 3600 70
Celestite, thousand tonnes 6100 3100 70
Phosphorites, million tonnes 1250 600 22-28
Bentonite, million tonnes 8 4 -
Kaolin, million tonnes 22 14 -
Diatomite, million tonnes 7 5 70
Rock salt (including the table salt), million tonnes 1100 600 -
(1) In terms of oxides, (2) In terms of metal

General characteristic of the economy. During the colonial period, the structure of the Algerian economy formed under the influence of the French monopolistic capital. After the achievement of the state independence (1962), the Government of Algeria has started the transformation of the colonial economy into the national one. Foreign land property has been expropriated, there have been nationalized many industrial enterprises and major types of transport. There have been created on this basis the self-managed properties and state-owned enterprises. Besides the mining-extracting industry, there are developed within Algeria the metallurgical, metal processing, food processing, textile industries; there is developing itself the chemical industry.

The structure of GDP of the country (1979, %) is: agriculture, including forestry, hunting and fishing, 6.5; mining-extracting industry 28.2; processing 11.8; construction 13.4; commerce 13.5; transport and communications, 4.7; other 21.9. The production of electricity during the 1981 has amounted to 7700 million kilowatt-hours. Within the structure of the fuel-energetical balance (1980), oil accounts for 54%, gas for 44%, coal for 2%. The length of the railways (1981) is approximately 3.9 thousand kilometres, of the automobile roads is approximately 92 thousand kilometres, including of the asphalted ones is approximately 47 thousand kilometres. There is developed the pipeline transport. The maritime transport facilitates almost all foreign commerce transportations. The total cargo turnover of the seaports (1981) is 60 million tonnes; the largest ports are the Bejaia, Arzew, Algiers, Annaba, Oran cities.

Nature. Algeria occupies the central part of the Atlas mountains and of the Sahara desert (the central and southern parts of the country). At the south of the Saharan region, there are situated the Ahaggar (Hoggar) desertic highlands with the summit of the Tahat mountain (3005 metres), at the north, there are situated the rocky plateau (the height is approximately 500 metres), sandy deserts with high dune ridges (Grand Erg, Erg Igidi, Erg Shesh, and others), and stony deserts. Northern Algeria is occupied by the ridges of the Atlas mountain range, within the limits of which, at the north, they distinguish the large Tel Atlas ridge (Varsenis mountain, the height is up to 1995 metres), the Greater and Lesser Kabylie massifs (up to 2308 metres), and at the south, the Saharan Atlas (Hodnya, Ores, up to 2328 metres), between which there are located the intermontane flat highlands and plains of the High plateaus (800-1200 metres).

The climate of the Northern Algeria is subtropical Mediterranean, the average temperature of January is more than 5-12 degrees Celsius, of July is 25 degrees Celsius, the quantity of precipitation at the mountains is 1200 millimetres per year (Kabylie), 400-800 millimetres at the Tel Atlas, 200-400 millimetres at the intermountain plains. The climate of the Saharan region is desertic tropical, the round-the-clock fluctuations of temperatures are up to 30 degrees Celsius, the precipitation is less than 50 millimetres per year. All rivers of Algeria belong to the type of wadis (temporary water streams). The vegetation is mostly desertic and semi-desertic, there are at the mountains the forests of the cork oak.

Geological structure. There are distinguished on the territory of Algeria the regions, which have different geological structure and metallogeny, namely, the Saharan (part of the ancient African tectonic plate), and the Atlas (the sector of the Mediterranean geosynclinal belt) regions, which are separated by the Southern Atlas fault. At the south of the Saharan region, there is prominent the Ahaggar (Hoggar) shield, at the south-west the El Eglab (Regibat). They are formed by the crystalline rocks of the Archean, metamorphosed volcanogenic-clastic and carbonatic depositions of the Lower Proterozoic and Riphean-Vendian; there are also widely developed within the Ahaggar the geosynclinal-orogenic volcanogenic-sedimentary depositions, and Taourirt granites (650-500 million years). The cover of the tectonic plate is formed by the marine terrigenous-carbonatic depositions of the Riphean-Vendian (especially within the Regibat massif), lagoon-continental and marine depositions of the Paleozoic (the thickness is 1.2-3.8 kilometres), sandstones and evaporites of the Triassic, clays and sandstones of the Jurassic-Neogene.

There are distinguished within the cover of the Saharan tectonic plate the syneclises (Tindouf, Western and Eastern Saharan ones), which are separated by the uplifts, and the Ugarte zone, which is by itself the aulacogene, the folding of which has manifested itself at the end of the Carboniferous. There are associated within the Ahaggar with volcanites and granites of the Riphean-Vendian the deposits of the ores of uranium, tin, tungsten, rare metals, and gold. There are localized within the Tindouf syneclise among the Paleozoic clayish-sandy depositions of the cover of the tectonic plate the largest deposits of the iron ores, and there are at the south of the Ahaggar the promising depositions of uranium. The anticlines within the depositions of the cover at the northern submersion of the Ahaggar contain the unique reservoirs of oil (Hassi Messaoud) and gas (Hassi R'Mel).

There are developed within the folded Atlas region the evaporites, gypsum-salt-bearing clays, and red-colour clastic rocks of the Triassic, which are overlain by the marine terrigenous-carbonatic depositions and carbonatic-terrigenous flysch (Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene). At the north, the Neogene is represented by the marine volcanogenic-sedimentary, clayish-carbonatic, and at the south, by the continental depositions.

Within the Tel Atlas, the folded rocks of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic (up to and including the Middle Miocene) form the series of the tectonic covers (nappes), which are displaced from north to south. Within the coastal zone, there are slightly developed the andesites and granitoids of the Neogene; within the massifs of the Greater and Lesser Kabylie, the metamorphic rocks of the pre-Cambrian, and the schists of the Paleozoic, which emerge onto the surface. To the south of the Tel Atlas, there is situated the block of the tectonic plate of the High Plateaus (Oran Meseta), where the folded Hercynian basement is overlain by the thin slightly deformed cover of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. There are exposed within the horsts the terrigenous and volcanogenic-schistose rocks of the Paleozoic, which are crumpled and breached by the Hercynian granitoids. To the south of the High Plateaus, there is located the moderately folded zone of the Saharan Atlas, which has been formed at the place of the Mesozoic downfold. In general, there prevail within the Atlas region the near-latitudinal folds and faults of the eastern and north-eastern (or "Atlas"-like) strike, and also the sub-meridional "Red Sea"-like faults, which are superposed within the northern part of Algeria onto the nappes of the Tel Atlas. The longitudinal and transverse faults determine the placement of the volcanites, evaporitic diapirs, and most important ore-bearing zones, with deposits of the ores of the ferrous and non-ferrous metals within the Atlas region. Within the Northern Algeria, there are associated with the rocks of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic the deposits of the ores of iron, zinc, lead, copper, antimony, mercury, and various types of the non-metallic raw materials.

The territory of Algeria is characterized by the high seismicity, which is associated with the displacement along the faults and nappes within various zones of the Northern Algeria. The most seismic is the Tel Atlas (the magnitude is 6-7), and within its limits, the coastal zones (Tenes-Cherchell, Oran-Mostaganem, and Shelif).

Hydrogeology. In terms of the hydrogeology, the territory of Algeria is divided into the mountainous-folded Atlas (the area is 250-300 (sic, may be thousand?) square kilometres), and the tectonic plate Saharan (over 2 million square kilometres) regions. They distinguish within the Algerian Atlas the mountainous-folded hydrogeological regions and artesian basins (coastal plains and intermountain depressions), there are also developed within the Sahara the hydrogeological massifs and slopes. There are distinguished on the territory of Algeria the 7 main relatively independent aquifers (or horizons) with varying yield, the waters of which are used for the water supply, watering, and irrigation. The most abundant in water are the Quaternary, Miocene-Pliocene, Lower Eocene, Cretaceous, and Jurassic depositions; sporadic waters are developed within the Paleozoic and undifferentiated Paleogene depositions. The waters are mainly fresh or slightly mineralized (1-3 grams per litre), at the depth are thermal (60 degrees Celsius and more), the flow rate yields of the individual drilled wells are more than 300 litres per second. See also the "Great Saharan artesian basin" article.

(Map) Algeria
ALGERIA
V.N.Vydrin has developed the special content

Useful minerals. Within Algeria, there have been discovered and explored the deposits of oil, natural gas, mineral coal, ores of uranium, iron, manganese, copper, lead, zinc, mercury, antimony, gold, tin, tungsten, and also phosphorites, barite, and so on (Table 1).

Algeria holds the 3rd place in the reserves of oil within Africa. There are known on the territory of Algeria the 183 fields of oil and gas, which are confined to the Algerian-Libyan oil-and-gas-bearing basin; the fields are located mostly at the north-east of the Saharan region. The largest oil field, namely, Hassi Messaoud, is localized within the sandstones of the Cambrian-Ordovician. There have the significant reserves the Zarzaitin, Hassi Thuile, Hassi el Agreb, Ting-Fuyou, Gurd el Bagel, and other fields. Algeria holds the 1st place in the reserves of gas within Africa. The largest gas field Hassi R'Mel is embedded within the sandstones of the Triassic; the significant reserves of gas have been explored at the Gurd Nus, Nezla, Oued Numer, and other fields.

The reserves of mineral coal are insignificant, its deposits (Kenadza, Abadla, Mezarif) are concentrated within the depositions of the Upper Carboniferous within the Bechar basin. The coals are fat, caking, with average ash content (8-20%), contain 20-35% of volatile impurities, and 2-3.5% of sulfur.

Algeria holds the 4th place in the reserves of the uranium ores within Africa. The hydrothermal-veinous deposits of the uranium ores Timgauin, Tinef, and Abankor have been explored within the Ahaggar (the proven reserves are 12 thousand tonnes, the content of U3O8 is 20%); at the south of the shield, there are known the uranium manifestations within the sandstones of the Paleozoic (Tahaggart).

Algeria holds the 2nd place in the reserves of the iron ore within Africa. Within the Northern Algeria, there have been explored the metasomatic deposits of the iron ores within the reefogenic limestones of the Aptian (Jabal Uenza, Bou Khadra), the total reserves of which are more than 100 million tonnes, the content of Fe is 40-56%. Within the Tindouf syneclise, there have been identified the largest within Algeria Devonian sedimentary deposits of the oolitic iron ores, namely, the Gara Djebilet (the total reserves are 2 billion tonnes, the content of Fe is 50-57%), and Meschery-Abdelaziz (2 billion tonnes, 50-55%). The reserves of the manganese ores are insignificant, they are confined to the volcanogenic-hydrothermal Oued Gettara deposit (the total reserves are 1.5 million tonnes, the content of Fe is 40-50%) within the Bechar region.

Algeria holds the 2nd place in the reserves of the ores of lead and zinc within Africa. Within the Northern Algeria, there are developed the stratiform, veinous (telethermal), and lenticular veinous (hydrothermal) deposits of the polymetallic ores. The stratiform deposits of the ores of lead and zinc are situated within the carbonatic depositions of the Jurassic (El-Abed, Degla), Cretaceous (Kerzet Youssef, Meslulla, Jebel Ishmul), the veins within the sandy-clayish rocks of the Cretaceous (Gerruma, Sakamodi) are associated with the diapirs of evaporites of the Triassic. The volcanogenic and plutonogenic-hydrothermal copper-polymetallic deposits within the rocks of the Cretaceous-Neogene are associated with the Miocene volcanites (Bu Sufa, Oued el Kebir) and granitoids (Bo Duk, Ashaysh, Ain Barbar, Kef um Tebul). The ore manifestations of the copper sandstones are known within the depositions of the Cretaceous and Triassic (Ain Sefra, at the west of the Saharan Atlas), Cambrian (Ben-Tajik within the Ugart), and Vendian (Hank at the south of Regibat).

Algeria holds the 1st place in the reserves of mercury within Africa (approximately 4% of the total worldwide reserves). The deposits of the mercury ores have been identified within the Azzaba region among the terrigenous-clastic rocks of the Cretaceous-Paleogene, and within the pre-Cambrian schists (the deposits of Genish, the total reserves in terms of metal are 4.5 thousand tonnes, the content of Hg is 1,16%; Mra-Sma are respectively 7.7 thousand tonnes, 3.9%; the Ismail deposit has been exhausted). Algeria holds the 2nd place in the reserves of the ores of antimony within Africa; they are concentrated within the northern Algeria at the Hammam Nbayls telethermal deposit. Algeria holds the 1st place in the reserves of the tungsten ores within Africa. There have been explored within the Ahaggar the quartz-cassiterite-wolframite greisen-veinous bodies of the Nahda (Lown), Tin Amzi, El Karussa, Bashir, Tiftazunin, and others, which are associated with the Taourirt granites. There is known within the northern Algeria the skarn-scheelitic Belelieta deposit.

The hydrothermal veinous deposits of gold, which are most significant according to their sizes, namely, the Tiririn, Tirek, Amesmessa, Ting-Felk, and others, gave been explored within the pre-Cambrian crystalline rocks of the Ahaggar; the exploration and prospecting for gold are being continued.

There has been identified within the northern Algeria the Bu Duau deposit.

Algeria holds the 5th place in the reserves of phosphorites within Africa. Within the northern Algeria, the deposits of the granular phosphorites are confined to the clayish-carbonatic depositions of the Upper Cretaceous - Paleogene. The largest deposits are the Dzhebelonk, El Kuif, Mzayta (see the "Arabian-African phosphorite-bearing province" article).

Algeria holds the 2nd place in the reserves of barite within Africa. There have been identified within the northern Algeria the veinous deposits Mizab (the total reserves are 2.15 million tonnes, the content of BaSO4 is 90%), Affensu, Bu Mani, Varsenis, and Sidi Kamber, within the Bechar region the veinous fields Bou Kais, Abadla, and others. Of the other useful minerals, there have been explored within Algeria the large deposit of celestite Beni Mansour (within the northern Algeria), the total reserves of which are 6.1 million tonnes; there are known the deposits of pyrites (the reserves are not large), table salt, and so on.

History of the development of mineral resources. The most ancient evidences of the usage of stone for the crafting of tools have been found within the Ternifine, and belong to the Lower Paleolithic (approximately 700 thousand years ago). Since the epoch of the Neolithic, there starts the extraction of the clays for the crafting of the ceramic tableware (5-4th millennium BC), since the 2nd millennium BC, there starts the extraction of stone for the construction of the large burial structures, namely, of the dolmens. The facts about the developed mining-metallurgical production during the Middle Ages are presented within the works of the Arab scientists and travelers al-Yaqoubi (9th century), al-Bakri (11th century), al-Qazwini (13th century), and others. The major ore mining centres were concentrated at the north, namely, the iron ore mines "Nemour" and "Beni Saf" near the Arzew city (western Algeria), and also near the Setif, Annaba, Bejaia cities; the copper ore mines within the Jabal Ketama mountains. Within the department of Constantine (near the Majany, eastern Algeria), there are mentioned also the developments of the depositions of silver, lead ores, building stone (not later than the 16th century). Near the Arzew city, there was extracted the mercury ore. During the 10th century, there were situated on the Jabal al-Melch hill (the "Mountain of salt") the salt mines.

After the colonization of Algeria (1830), there have started within the country the intensive prospectings for the useful minerals. The industrial usage of the deposits of the ores of iron (Ayn Mokra, Beni Saf, Jebel Uenza, Mokti-el-Hadid) is performed since the 50-60-ies of the 19th century, at the same time there was conducted the intensive development of the deposits of the lead, zinc, and copper ores (Muzaiya, Oued Merdja, Tizi Ntaga), of phosphorites (since the 1893). During the 1907, there has been discovered the major Algeria-Kenadza coal deposit, the maximal extraction at which was performed during the years of the 2nd World War, the 1939-45.

(Table 2) The extraction of the major types of the mineral raw materials
The type of the mineral raw material 1950 1960 1970 1979 1980
Oil (with condensate), million tonnes - 8.8 48.5 56.2 50.6
Natural gas (marketable), million cubic metres - 100 3400 21400 19300
Mineral coal, million tonnes 258 120 10 - 10
Iron ores, million tonnes 2.6 3.39 2.9 4.2 5
Copper ores (*), thousand tonnes 0.1 0.1 0.6 0.2 0.2
Mercury ores (*), tonnes - - - 1035 1035
Lead ores (*), thousand tonnes 1.4 10.5 6.5 2.3 1.8
Silver ores (*), tonnes 1 12 6.5 3.1 2.5
Antimony ores (*), tonnes 1195 804 60 60 60
Zinc ores (*), thousand tonnes 7.2 40.1 17.2 5 8.2
Barite, thousand tonnes 21 55.8 51.6 70 90.7
Rock salt, thousand tonnes 75.6 143.3 99.8 163.3 150
Pyrite, thousand tonnes 25.1 38.5 32.5 - -
Phosphorites, thousand tonnes 685 588 492 1084 1025
Bentonite, thousand tonnes - 102 15.7 25 25
Diatomite, thousand tonnes 13.7 22.3 6.2 12 14
Kaolin, thousand tonnes 0.8 - 2 20 20
(*) Metal within concentrate

Mining industry. General characteristic. The leading branch of the mining industry is the oil-gas extracting one (more than 90% of the value of all the products of the mining-extracting branch of the industry); it provides the largest part of the foreign currency income. During the 1981, the share of oil and gas accounted for 96% of the export of the country, which has amounted to 62 billion of the Algerian dinars. Within the mining-extracting industry, the governmental sector plays the leading role. There occupies the monopolistic position within the oil-gas industry the "Société Nationale pour la Recherche, la Production, le Transport, la Transformation, et la Commercialisation des Hydrocarbures" ("SONATRACH") governmental company. There have been taken under the control of the company the reserves and extraction of oil and gas, all the trunk oil and gas pipelines, the plants for the liquefaction of gas and processing of oil. The total quantity of personnel, which is engaged within the oil-gas industry, is approximately 36 thousand persons (1980). The government of Algeria assists the development of the oil-gas industry by the method of the uniting with the foreign capital (49%), with preservation of the 51% of the shares by the "SONATRACH". The company performs the extraction, and also the exploration for oil and gas within the Sahara, together with the French firms "Total", "Compagnie Française de Pétrole", "Compagnie de Recherches et d'Activités Pétrolières", companies of the USA ("Getty Oil Co."), Spain ("Hispanoil"), West Germany ("Deminex"), Poland ("Copex"), and Brazil ("Petrobras"). After the nationalization of the mines and quarries (1966) within the mining-ore industry of Algeria, the "SONAREM" governmental company completely controls the exploration, extraction, consumption, and export of all the solid useful minerals (the total quantity of employees is approximately 14 thousand persons, 1980). The company comprises 30 mines and quarries, conducts the exploration within the northern Algeria and Sahara. Algeria is one of the leading producers of mercury (Table 2).

The extraction of the ores of iron and non-ferrous metals is insignificant (See the map.).

Oil industry. The exploration works for the oil have been started within the country for the first time during the 1875 within the northern regions, the extraction on the insignificant scale has been started during the 1913. The discovery during the 1956 of the large oil fields within the Sahara region has served as the basis for the fast development of the oil extracting branch of the industry (the industrial extraction has started during the 1958). There has also assisted to this the commissioning during the 1960 of the oil pipelines Hassi Messaoud - Bejaia and Edzhele - Sehira (Tunisia), with throughput capacity of 14 million tonnes per year each. The Algerian oil industry has been partially nationalized during the 1971. There is under the control of the "SONATRACH" the 77% of the extraction of oil (1981). During the 1981, Algeria held the 14th place in the level of this indicator among the industrially developed capitalistic and developing countries, and the 3rd place among the countries of Africa (after Libya and Nigeria).

The major regions of the extraction are the Haud-Berkaui, Hassi-Messaoud, El Hassi, Hassi el Agreb, Gurd el Bagel oil fields. The products arrive also from the Hassi Thuile, Gurd-Nus, Nezla oil-gas fields. During the 1981, the quantity of the active drilled oil wells has totalled 1050. The oil is light, with low sulfur content. Algeria exports the largest part (up to 70%) of the raw materials (mainly into the countries of the Western Europe). The most important ports of shipment are the Arzew and Skikda cities. The large oil pipelines are: Assakay-faf - Sehira (Tunisia), Hassi-Messaoud - Bejaia, Hassi-Messaoud - Arzew, Mesdar - Skikda, and others. The total length of all the oil pipelines is more than 4.5 thousand kilometres (1980).

The productive capacities of the oil processing industry of Algeria are designed for the provision of the needs of the internal market. At the start of the 80-ies, there worked within Algeria the 5 oil processing plants with the total annual productive capacity of 21 million tonnes. There has been adopted within the country the direction for the economy of its own oil resources and for their rational usage (the volume of the extraction has decreased during the 1979 by 10%, during the 1980 by 15%); there is expected by 1990 the partial replacement of the export of the oil with the export of the oil products. There are activated the prospecting-explorative works. During the 1980-1981, there have been signed approximately 20 agreements with the foreign companies (France, Italy, USA, West Germany, Brazil, Yugoslavia). During the 1980, there have been drilled 249 wells (76 have given oil, 96 have given gas).

Gas industry. The extraction of the natural gas within the country has started during the 60-ies of the 20th century, and is increasing with the rapid tempos (during the 1971-80, by 14% per year on average). Algeria has got the 1st place in the volume of the marketable extraction during the 1980 among the developing countries. For the industry of Algeria is characteristic the export orientation. There is exported approximately 30% of the gas, which is extracted. There is sold into the foreign market more than 1/3 of the gas, which is extracted. The importers are the Great Britain, France, Spain, USA. The dynamic development of the industry is explained because of the availability of the large reserves of the raw materials, the proximity of such capacious market for the sales of gas, as Western Europe. The gas industry of Algeria has been nationalized during the 1971. The overwhelming volume of the extraction, transportation, and sales of the gas is on the account of the "SONATRACH" company, which directs the major part of the investments into the development of the gas branch of the industry. The largest deposit, which is being developed, is the Hassi R'Mel.

There are situated to the south-east from it several oil-gas and gas fields, the most important of which are the Alrar, Gurd-Nus, Nezla, and others. There is located to the south-west from the Hassi R'Mel the group of the smaller gas fields. It is planned to start the development of the depositions within these regions after the completion of the construction of the gas pipelines to the Hassi R'Mel gas field.

They obtain the largest part of the gas from the oil fields. During the 1978, within the total volume of the gross extraction (32.5 billion cubic metres), the share of the associated gas has amounted to 57%. Because of the absence of the necessary transport systems, this type of the raw material is burned within the gas flares (38% of the total extraction during the 1978), or is pumped into the oil layers (20%). Algeria holds the 3rd place within the world in the export of the liquefied gas. There exist within the country four enterprises for the liquefaction of the gas: three ones within the Arzew city, with the total annual productive capacity of 22 billion cubic metres, and one within the Skikda city, with productive capacity of 9 billion cubic metres.

The gas, which is extracted, is pumped through the trunk gas pipelines Hassi R'Mel - Arzew (two lines with the total throughput capacity of 3.8 billion cubic metres per year) and Hassi R'Mel - Skikda (13.5 billion cubic metres per year) to the sea ports, with the goal of the further deliveries into the external market. There exist also the branched gas distribution network for the supply of the gas into the centres of consumption. The total length of the network of the gas pipelines within Algeria is approximately 4 thousand kilometres. During the 1981, there has been completed the construction of the Trans-Mediterranean gas pipeline Algeria - Italy (2500 kilometres), which passes through the territory of Tunisia, across the Strait of Sicily, island of Sicily, Messina Strait, to the southern regions of Italy. The throughput capacity of the gas pipeline is 12 billion cubic metres per year; it is possible its increase (on the account of the construction of the additional compressor stations) to 18 billion cubic metres. There is being developed the project of the construction of the Trans-Mediterranean gas pipeline Algeria - Spain across the Strait of Gibraltar with the throughput capacity of up to 40 billion cubic metres per year.

Mining-chemical industry. The reserves of phosphorites constitute the foundation of the raw materials base of the mining-chemical industry of Algeria. There caused the hindering influence on the development of the extraction of this useful mineral within Algeria the fact, that it is very inferior because of quality within the region to the Moroccan and Tunisian phosphorites. Algeria holds the 10th place in the level of the extraction of phosphorites among the industrially developed capitalistic and developing countries (1980), giving approximately 1.5% of their total products. The extraction of the useful minerals is concentrated mainly at the "Jabal-Onk" open pit mine with productive capacity of 3.6 million tonnes of ore per year. The reserves within the limits of the mining field exceed 200 million tonnes. The major mining equipment is the draglines. The ore, which is extracted, undergoes the primary processing. Because of the content within it of the organic impurities and carbonates, they beneficiate it using the calcination within the fluidized bed at the temperature of 900 degrees Celsius. The major part of the phosphorites, which are extracted within Algeria, is delivered for export, mainly to the countries of the Western Europe. There is expected the significant expansion of the production of the phosphate fertilizers from the domestic raw material. In association with this, Algeria has signed the contracts with the "Polymex Cekop" firm (Poland) and "Marubeni Hitachi" consortium (Japan) for the construction of the plants for the production of fertilizers within the Annaba and Telessa cities. By the 1990, it is planned to increase the volume of the issued products to 3.65 million tonnes.

Algeria has quite large resources of the barium raw materials. At the same time, the volumes of the extraction of the useful minerals within the country are small, namely, approximately 1.5% of those of the industrially developed capitalistic and developing countries. The certain growth of the extraction has been noted since the start of the 70-ies, and is associated mainly with the needs of the oil and gas extracting branches of the industry. The development of the deposits of barite (there prevail the veinous ones) is mainly concentrated within the region of the Ayn Mimoun, Sidi Kamber, Moakley cities. It is conducted using both open pit and underground methods. For the beneficiation of the ores, they are using flotation. There is planned the increase of the annual extraction of barite up to 150 thousand tonnes. There are developed in small volumes within the country the depositions of pyrites (at most 20 thousand tonnes per year, in terms of sulfur).

Extraction of the iron ore. On the territory of Algeria, the extraction of the iron ores is conducted by the open pit and underground methods at the Jebel Uenza, Bou Khadra, Hanget, Beni Saf deposits. The largest deposit and promising region of extraction is the Gara Djebilet at the south-west of the country. The extraction is performed by the open pit method by the "Société Nationale de Recherches et d'Exploitations Minières" ("SONAREM") governmental company, with the involvement of the Moroccan capital, and amounts annually to 4.2 million tonnes of the ore (1979). The system of the development is with the transportation of the waste rocks. The iron ore serves as the raw material for the El-Hajjar metallurgical plant, near the Annaba port city. For the hauling of the ore, which is extracted, there has been designed the construction of the railway with the length of 1100 kilometres to the Algerian coast of the Mediterranean Sea, where is planned the creation (during the start of the 90-ies) of the large metallurgical combined enterprise (within the La Macro, between the Arzew and Mostaganem cities). There is planned the increase of the extraction of the iron ore by the 1990 up to 13.1 million tonnes.

Extraction of mercury. Algeria is one of the leading producers of mercury. It accounts for approximately 1/4 of the total extraction of the ores of mercury of the industrially developed capitalistic and developing countries. The extraction is conducted since the 1971 by the "Mercure d'Ismail" company by the open pit method within the Azzaba region. Here also works the metallurgical combined enterprise for the processing of the ores. The "SONAREM" company conducts the geological-explorative works for the ores of mercury.

Other useful minerals. There are extracted within Algeria in the small quantities the ores of lead, zinc, copper, silver, and also the marble, rock salt, and other useful minerals. They obtain the copper concentrates from the raw materials of the Ain Barbar deposit; after the commissioning of the new mines (Bo-Duk, Kef-um-Tebul, Bu Sufa), the extraction of the copper ore may be tripled. The extraction of the zinc ores by the 1985 should increase up to 38 thousand tonnes (in terms of metal), by the 1990 up to 45 thousand tonnes; the extraction of the ores of lead, respectively, up to 19.2 thousand and 27.2 thousand tonnes. There is projected within Ahaggar (1985) the development of the deposits of tungsten Nahda (Lown), gold (Tiririn, Tirek, and others), and uranium (Timgauin, Abankor).

Mining-geological service. Training of the cadres. Publishing. The mining-geological works within Algeria are headed by the Directorate of Mines and Geology within the system of the Ministry of Heavy Industry, which comprises the departments: mining-ore, prospecting-explorative works, laboratory researches, and service of the geological map. The latter performs the management of the works on the problematic geological researches, on the geological mapping, publishes the geological maps and collections of works. The geological researches are conducted within the Institute of Oil (the centres are within the Algiers, Hassi Messaoud, and Oran cities).

The training of the cadres is performed within the University (Algiers city), African Centre for hydrocarbons and textile industry (Boumerdes city), Polytechnic School (El Harrach city), and Technical Ore School (Miliana city).

They place the major publications on the mining craft and geology within the magazines: "Bulletin du Service de la Carte Géologique de l'Algérie" (since the 1902); "Bulletin économique et juridique Alger" (since the 1937).