L.E.Egel has developed the special conten

ALBANIA (Albanian: Shqipërisë), the People's Socialist Republic of Albania (Albanian: Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë), is the country in the southern Europe, in the south-western part of the Balkan peninsula, on the coast of the Ionian and Adriatic seas. It shares the borders at the north and east with Yugoslavia, at the south-east with Greece, and is separated from Italy by the Strait of Otranto with the width of 75 kilometres. The area is 28.7 thousand square kilometres. The population is 2.7 million (the end of 1980). The capital is Tirana city. Albania is divided into 26 rrethe (districts), Tirana is the separate administrative unit. The official language is Albanian. The currency is the Albanian lek. Albania was the member of the CMEA (the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance) in 1949-61 (Albania has terminated the participation in its work).

The general characteristic of the economy. There constituted in 1980 in the structure of the GDP the share of the industry 60%, the share of the agriculture and construction about 25%. The electrical power industry of the country is based mainly on the hydro resources of the Drina, Mat, Bistrita, and other rivers. Of the 22 existing small electrical power generating stations 10 are the thermal ones, with the power not exceeding 50 thousand kilowatt hours (sic). The production of the electricity has reached 3.5 billion kilowatt hours (1980). There constitute the foundation of the internal transport network the highways (the length is 3.1 thousand kilometres), the total length of the railways is 218 kilometres (1979). The major sea ports are the Durrës and Vlorë. The oil pipelines exist from the Patos and Stalin oil fields to the Derrick (sic) (Durrës?) city and through the Fier city to the Vlorë port. There has been constructed in 1980 the gas pipeline Ballsh-Fier-Elbasan. Albania exports electricity (to Yugoslavia), oil, natural bitumen, chromites, copper, iron-nickel ores, ferroalloys.

Nature. There is prominent on the western territory of Albania the lowland-hilly coastal part with the width of 35-45 kilometres, it is framed by the mountains at the north, east, and south. Approximately 4/10 of the territory of the country lies at the altitude of 300-1000 metres, 3/10 of the territory lies higher than 1000 metres. There are towering at the north the difficult to reach North Albanian Alps, in which there are incised the deep valleys of the tributaries of the Drina river. There are situated to the south, between the Drina and Devoll rivers, the central mountain massifs with the height of 2-2.4 thousand metres, which are dissected by the deep gorges of the tributaries of the Drina, Mat, and Shkumbin rivers. These massifs are limited at the east by the tectonic valleys, where the Black Drin river flows, and the lake Ohrid is situated. There extends behind the Black Drin the Yugoslavia bordering Korab mountain range.

The climate is subtropical Mediterranean. The average temperature of the January is 8-9 degrees Celsius, of the July is 24-25 degrees Celsius. The precipitation is 800-2000 millimetres per year. The rivers are not navigable, but are used for the watering irrigation, and for the obtainment of the electrical energy.

The geological structure. The territory of Albania is the part of the young Alpine folded geosynclinal region, and is the part of the Dinarides, which constitute the southern branch of the Alpine belt of Europe. The major geological structures have predominantly the north-western strike. There are prominent in the northern part of the country, which belongs to the Dinarides, the zones of the Durmitor (at the far north-east), and of the High Karst, also known as the Northern Albanian Alps (farther in the south-western direction), which belong to the external miogeosynclines. There are exposed in the Durmitor zone the Paleozoic rocks, which have been broken through by the small intrusions of the diorites. There dominate in the High Karst zone the carbonatic strata of the Mesozoic, which are underlain by the terrigenous sediments of the Upper Paleozoic. They distinguish in the remaining part of Albania, which belongs to the Ellinides, from the north-east to the south-west, the Korab, Mirditë, Cukal-Krasta-Pindus zones, and the Adriatic-Ionian, of which the first two zones belong to the internal eugeosynclines, the third zone occupies the intermediate position, and the fourth zone belongs to the miogeosyncline. All zones are pulled one over another along the south-western direction, thus forming the tectonic covers. The lower part of the cross section in the Korab zone is characterized by the volcano-sedimentary series, by the marbles and phyllitic schists of the Silurian-Devonian age, by the small outcrops of the volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks, by the evaporites and terrigenous series of the Permian-Triassic. There lie higher the Triassic carbonatic strata, the limestones of the Upper Cretaceous, and the schists of the Paleogene. Of the minerals, there are known in this zone the deposits of the gypsum, sulfur, marble.

There are prominent the three structural stages in the Mirditë zone, which is the major ore region of Albania, and is stretching from the north-western direction to the south-eastern direction across all the country for 300 kilometres with the width of about 50 kilometres. The lower stage is formed by the volcanogenic-sedimentary strata of the Lower and Middle Triassic, among which there are prominent the large massifs of the igneous rocks of the ultramafic, mafic, intermediate, and felsic compositions of the Jurassic age. There are associated with them the deposits of the chromium and copper ores, of the sulfur, asbestos, magnesite, and others. The middle structural stage is characterized by the transgressive series of the Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous, among which there dominate the carbonatic rocks. There is confined to this stage the iron-nickel-containing crust of the weathering of the ultramafic massifs of the Mirditë zone in the Early Cretaceous before the start of the marine transgression. The upper structural stage of the Mirditë zone is represented by the molasses, predominantly by the Neogene ones, which fill the tectonic depressions. There are known in the rocks of the upper stage the depositions of the nickel-containing laterites, of the lignite (Alyarupi-Mokra, Drenova, Mborya), kaolin, and other minerals.

There stretches from the Mirditë zone to the west the Cukal-Krasta-Pindus zone, which is formed in the lower part of the cross section by the carbonatic rocks, which are alternating with the siliceous formations, tuffites, and schists of the Middle Triassic. There are embedded higher the limestones of the Middle and Upper Jurassic and the cherty rocks, and then the limestones of the Upper Cretaceous, which are overlain, in their turn, by the young flysch. The deposits of the minerals are not typical for this zone. There occupies the south-western part of Albania the Adriatic- Ionian zone, which is divided into the two subzones: the Dalmatian coastal, or Gavrovski, which is relatively uplifted, and represented by the narrow Kruje-Daiti ridge; and the Ionian, which occupies all the remaining territory of the south-western part of Albania. The pre-Carnian gypsums of the Dome-du-Dueler mountain are believed to be the oldest rocks. The lower part of the cross section of the Ionian subzone is represented by the thick carbonatic sediments of the Upper Triassic and Middle Eocene, above which there lies the Paleogene and Lower Miocene flysch, which is overlain, in its turn, by the molasses. There are confined to the latter the deposits of the oil, gas, lignite, rock salt, gypsum, and phosphates.

Seismicity. The territory of Albania is the part of the Mediterranean seismic belt. Its seismicity is studied less than sufficiently, the seismic zoning is not completed. The recording of the seismic phenomena before the 20th century was not performed; there have been registered till the 80th approximately 10 major earthquakes (1921, 1924-25, 1942, 1967, and others) with the disastrous consequences. There are prominent the seismic zones of the Drin river valley, of the Vlorë and Debar cities, and others.

The hydrogeology of Albania has been studied poorly. The typically karst regions with the underground lakes and water sources are interspersed with the zones of the artesian pressurized waters. There are known the mineral water sources, on the basis of which there have been created the Peshkopi, Llixha, Glina, and other resorts.

(Table # 1) The reserves of the minerals
Mineral Reserves The content of the useful components, % The forecast resources
total explored and evaluated including A+B+C categories
Oil, million tonnes - 20.0 - 40
Natural gas, billion cubic metres - 12.0 - 10
Natural bitumina, million tonnes 2.0 0.2 - 2
Hard coal, million tonnes 10.0 8.0 - -
Lignite, million tonnes 60.0 50.0 - 50.0
Iron-nickel-cobalt ores, million tonnes 300.0 80.0 17.57 Fe, 1.3-1.8 Ni, 0.04-0.06 Co 100-120
Chromium ores, million tonnes 14.0 11.0 20-34 Cr2O3 30
Nickel ores *, thousand tonnes 3300.0 960.0 1.3-1.8 Ni 1300
Cobalt ores *, thousand tonnes 200.0 60.0 0.04-0.06 Co 100
Copper ores *, thousand tonnes 1000.0 500.0 1.5-4 Cu 1000
Gold ores *, tonnes 100. - 2-3 g/t 100
Bauxites, million tonnes not evaluated - 50-60 Al2O3, 4-19 SiO2, 8-17 Fe2O3 3-5
Phosphorites, million tonnes not evaluated - 7-18 P2O5 5-10
Native sulfur, thousand tonnes 3.0 1.6 30 -
* In terms of the extracted metal

Minerals. The most important minerals are the nickel-containing and cobalt-containing iron ores, chromium and copper ores, lignites (see the map and the table # 1).

The fields of the oil are small in the terms of their reserves, and are confined to the Neogene molasse depression in the central part of the coastal region of the country (the near-Adriatic depression). This depression occupies the south-eastern part of the Adriatic-Ionian oil-and-gas-bearing basin. The reservoirs are unsealed in the Tortonian and Sarmatian depositions (the Priza, Gorani, Kuçovë stratigraphic suites) at the depth from 250 to 1700 metres. All reservoirs are lithologically shielded, and are confined to the zones of the thinning of the Middle Miocene depositions. The most significant oil fields, namely, the Stalin (Kuçovë), Patos, and Marineza ones, have similar geological structure. The thickness of the productive horizons varies from 0.5-7 metres (the Kuçovë stratigraphic suite) to 20-30 metres (the Gorani stratigraphic suite). The collectors are the sands and sandstones with the porosity of 24-46% and the permeability of 480-2800 millidarcies. As a rule, the fields contain several oil-bearing horizons (the productive thickness is up to 300 metres). The oils are mostly heavy (the density is 935-1018 kilograms per cubic metre), bituminous, with the admixture of the sulfur, the content of which exceeds 6% (Patos) in the individual cases.

The fields of the natural gas are small, the most significant of them, namely, the Divjakë and Bubullimë, are confined to the sands, sandy marls, and flysch of the Middle Miocene, and also to the Eocene limestones. The gas has been also uncovered in the small isolated Korçë basin.

The Selenicë field of the natural bitumina, which is situated to the east of the Vlorë, is confined to the Lower Miocene and Pleistocene depositions. The major bitumen-bearing horizons, namely, the aleuritic horizon with the thickness of 2-3 metres, with the thin lenses of the sandstones (the Plaisancian stage), and the horizon in the Astian stage with the tickness of 7-38 metres, are formed by the carbonatic aleurites, which are changing into the clays and fine-grained sandstones. The total reserves of the field are approximately 2 million tonnes.

Albania has the small reserves of the fossil coals, mostly lignite. Most of the coal deposits are associated with the Miocene molasses, a few of the deposits are associated with the depositions of the depressions of the internal zones of the Dinarides. There are prominent 3 major coal-bearing regions: the Central one, or the Tirana (the Krrabë, Iriska, Mzezavodome, Gayushi, and other deposits), the Southern one (the Memaliay deposit), and the South-Eastern one (the Mborya, Drenova, Alyarupi-Mokra deposits). The coals are transitional from the lignites to the hard coals, with the 6.5-12% humidity, 7.6-18% residual ash content, up to 52% yield of the volatile content, 14.7-33.6 megajoules per kilogram low energy of combustion; the coals are prone to the spontaneous ignition.

The most important deposits of the iron-nickel-cobalt ores are confined to the massifs of the ultramafic rocks, namely, Kukës, Librazhd-Pogradec, and others in the Mirditë zone, and also in the Korçë region. There are known in the Kukës massif region at the north-east of the country the deposits and places: Trulye-Mamezi, Gikai-Lomai, Vranishti-Krumë, and others. There are prominent in the tabular deposits of the crust of the weathering the ore-less bottom part with the thickness of 10-30 metres, the zone of the silicified rocks with the garnierite is higher, with the thickness from 1-5 to 10-12 metres, with the Ni content of 0.6-2.6% (1.3% on average); there are embedded over the zone of the silicified rocks the nickel-containing limonites with the thickness of 2-3 metres, which are containing 0.8-1.2% of Ni, 35-50% of Fe, 0.04% of Co, and 1-2.5% of Cr. There are situated in the Librazhd-Pogradec region the Memelishti, Chervenyak, Udënisht, Radokon, Kotel (the Pogradec group), Pishkashi-Skraska, Bistritsa, and other deposits, which are essentially the parts of the tabular deposition of the nickel-containing limonite with the thickness of up to 20 metres, which has been traced from the north-east to the south-east for more than 20 kilometres. The ores of these deposits contain 1-1.2% of the nickel, 50-55% of the iron, approximately 0.06% of the cobalt, 3-4% of the chromium trioxide, approximately 5% each of alumina and silica. There has been explored in the Korçë region the Bitincka deposit, the geological structure of which is similar to the deposits of the Kukës massif. Here have been determined in the horizon of the silicified ores of the sharply varying thickness the contents: 1.1-1.7% of the nickel, 12-17% of the iron, 0.02-0.04% of the cobalt, 1-1.5% of the chromium trioxide, 33-38% of the silica, 20-23% of the magnesium oxide. There lies above the silicified ores the horizon of the nickel-containing limonites with the thickness of 2-4 metres, which is analogous to the Kukës region according to the content of the useful components. There have lesser importance the deposits of the re-deposited depositions of the nickel-containing limonites, which are situated in the central part of Albania in the Polisi mountainous region (the Gyumaga, Lyneni-Cook deposits). These deposits are studied less than sufficiently, the reserves are estimated at 10-15 million tonnes of the ores; they are similar according to their characteristic to the deposits of the Pogradec group.

The numerous deposits of the chromium ores are confined to the ultramafic massifs of the Mirditë zone. The most significant of them are of the late-magmatic type; the segregation deposits, which are found less often, are usually small in their sizes. The ore bodies are the veins, the tabular depositions, the depositions of the irregular shape, the lenses, the pockets and the zones of the interspersion with the massive texture, most often of the sub-meridional strike, less often of the sub-latitudinal strike. The reserves of the ores in the depositions are from the hundreds of tonnes to 7.5 million tonnes (Bulqizë), the contacts with the host rocks are usually sharp. There have the greatest industrial importance the deposits (or their groups): the Bulqizë in the massif with the same name to the north-east of Tirana (the reserves are at least 5 million tonnes); the Tropoja group at the north-east of the country, which is including the Kami, Reagen, Vlazna, and other deposits (the reserves are 0.3-0.5 million tonnes); the Kukës group in the massif of the same name, also at the north-east of the country, includes the Kalimashi, Surroi, and other deposits (the reserves are 1.5-2 million tonnes); the Martanesh group with the Lyagu-Jat, Lyagu-Fell, Sekna, and other deposits to the east of Tirana (the reserves are 1-1.2 million tonnes); the Pogradec group in the southern part of the Shebenik massif, near the western shore of the Lake Ohrid, which includes the Memelishti, Rantsa, and other deposits (the reserves are 1-1.1 million tonnes).

The deposits of the copper ores are confined mainly to the volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks of the Lower and Middle Triassic, and to the erupted mafic and felsic intrusive rocks of the lower structural stage of the Mirditë zone. The chalcopyrite-pyrite deposits (Rubik, and others) are represented by the conformably embedded tabular depositions in the volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks of the Lower and Middle Triassic ages. The ore minerals are predominantly the pyrite and chalcopyrite, with the subordinate significance of the bornite, sphalerite, hematite, magnetite, and others. The content of the Cu is 2.5-4%, the total reserves of copper in the deposits of this type are significant, but the small depositions of the Rubik group and certain others have been exhausted. The subvolcanic copper-containing pyrite deposits (Spichi, Bari, and others) represent themselves as the thick extended zones of the interspersed mineralization in the effusives of the diabase-spilite-keratophyre type, of the Lower and Middle Triassic ages. The main ore mineral is the pyrite with the subordinate significance of the chalcopyrite and sphalerite. The content of the Cu in the ores is 1.8-2.1%. The sizes of the ore depositions are significant. The ores of the most chalcopyrite and copper-containing pyrite deposits include gold (2.3 grams per tonne of the ore).

The small depositions of the high-quality bauxites have been uncovered in the North Albanian Alps and in the Krujë zone. In the North Albanian Alps, in the Valbona region, the bauxites are embedded in the Triassic depositions between the limestones of the Ladinian stage and the marlish limestones of the Carnian stage. The bauxites form in the Krujë zone the lenses with the thickness of several metres. The bauxites are predominantly red, less often white with the oolite texture.

There are known in many regions of Albania the alluvial placer deposits from the Permian to the modern ages with the elevated content of the zirconium, rare earth minerals, rutile, ilmenite.

The small deposits of the chrysotile asbestos (Fushë-Arrëz, and others) are associated with the massifs of the ultramafic rocks to the east of the Shkodër city. The deposits represent themselves as the reticular zones of the small asbestous veins with the thickness of 0.2-12 millimetres, more often of 1-3 millimetres in the serpentinites. The coefficient of the mineralization is 1.5-20%. The reserves have not been evaluated.

There have been uncovered in the Upper Cretaceous sedimentary strata of the central part of the Ionian zone several lenticular depositions of the phosphate-containing limestones (the Fushë-Barda, Nivike, and other deposits) with the content of P2O5 from 7-8% to 15-18%, and there have been uncovered in the young molasses the large deposits of the rock salt, namely, the Dumrë and Delvinë. There have the industrial importance the Peshtani deposit of the gypsum, which is formed by the gypsum-bearing depositions of the Permian age with the thickness of 700-1000 metres, which has been traced on the area of about 60 square kilometres, with the significant reserves of the gypsum, and also the Kercishta deposit of the native sulfur, which is confined to the dolomitic limestones of the Upper Cretaceous (the content of the S is approximately 30%). The relatively small numerous deposits of the magnesite are known in the Gomsike, Luciano, Kateli, Voskopoe, and other places. The magnesite lenses and veins are confined to the tectonic zones in the ultramafic rocks of the Mirditë zone.

There have been identified, explored, and are used in Albania the deposits of the sands, clays, cement raw materials, and also the thermal and mineral water sources.

The history of the development of the mineral resources. The earliest evidences of the usage of the flint rocks for the production of the tools belong to the Paleolithic (approximately 500-100 thousand years ago). There have started in the 6th millennium BC to be extracted extensively the clays for the construction of the dwellings and for the manufacturing of the ceramic tableware. The first copper tools in Albania appear in the 5th-4th millennium BC, but the ore sources of this copper are not known. The mining craft of the Copper and Bronze Ages in Albania has not been studied. It is believed, that there started since the 5th-4th centuries BC the extensive extraction of the building stone. This extraction has got the maximal momentum since the 2nd-1st centuries BC, when the territory of the modern Albania has become the part of the Dalmatia and Macedonia Roman provinces. There was developed during the Roman Empire times the Selenicë deposit of the natural bitumina.

(Table # 2) The extraction of the main types of the mineral raw materials
The mineral raw material 1950 1960 1970 1980
Oil, million tonnes 0.1 0.73 1.49 2.9
Natural gas, billion cubic metres - - 0.10 0.45
Lignite, thousand tonnes 40.9 291 606 1500
Natural bitumen, thousand tonnes 10 12 15 30
Iron-nickel ores, million tonnes - 0.25 0.54 0.6
Chromite ores, thousand tonnes 52 290 500 1.1
Nickel ores, thousand tonnes - 2.45 5.4 10.0
Cobalt ores, thousand tonnes - 0.15 0.3 0.6
Copper ores *, thousand tonnes 0.9 2.2 5.6 14.1
* In terms of the extracted metal

Mining industry. General characteristics. For many centuries, Albania was the agrarian and raw material appendage of Turkey or Italy, and could not create the national heavy industry, particularly the mining-extracting one. The chromium and copper ores were developed since the start of the 2nd quarter of the 20th century. The planned development of the mining industry has started after the establishment of the people's government (1944), when, with the help of the USSR, there has been performed the comprehensive geological study of the territory of Albania, and the mining-extracting industry has started to create itself on the basis of the identified and proven reserves of the oil, coal, iron-nickel ores, and other minerals (see the Table # 2).

Oil industry. The first Kuçovë (Stalin) oil field has been discovered in 1934, and is developed since 1935; there have been identified till the 50th 6 oil fields and 6 gas fields. Of the 60 prospective structures for the oil and gas exploration, there are drilled several ones in the small depression to the south of the Shkodër city. The total maximal productive capacity of the (refineries) oil processing plants of Albania is more than 3.5 million tonnes. The most significant of them are situated in the Ballsh and Fier cities (the productivity of the latter is more than 1 million tonnes per year), the remaining plants have the small productive capacity and are situated directly near the oil fields. The production of the technical bitumina in 1974 has exceeded 1 million tonnes per year. Albania satisfies its needs on the account of its own oil, is the exporter of the crude oil and bitumina, and proceeds to the export of the oil products. More than 90% of the bitumina is exported to Europe, predominantly to the Italy, Greece, Yugoslavia, and to the German Democratic Republic and Poland. Besides this, Albania exports to the socialist countries of Europe various oil products (the volume of the export is 100-150 thousand tonnes per year).

The extraction of the natural gas has reached 0.45 billion cubic metres per year; the development of the gas industry, it seems, will be determined by the export policy, because the consumption of the gas inside of Albania is non-significant.

The extraction of the natural bitumina of the Selenicë deposit is 10-30 thousand tonnes per year; they are destined exclusively for export, predominantly to Yugoslavia. There are distinguished in the solid bitumina the technical grades: black, coal-like, brown, powder-like, clastic, and bituminized rock. The black and brown bitumina are used for the melting into the marketable bitumen, and the remaining ones are used as the fuel. The deposit is developed by the open pit and underground methods.

The scheme of the unsealing and the system of the development of the coal deposits depend on their mining-geological conditions. The Mzezavodome deposit has been unsealed by the vertical shafts; the Memaliaj, Mborje, Drenovë deposits have been unsealed by the adits. The extraction is performed by the short stopes of the long wall method. The shallowly embedded parts of the coal basins are developed by the open pit method with the usage of the small mechanization. The growth of the extraction of the coal in 1975-80 is caused by the commissioning of the new coal-extracting enterprise in the Valiyasi region.

The operation of the deposits of the chromium ores in Albania has started in the 1st half of the 20th century, has reached the greatest productivity during the 2nd World War of 1939-45, and then has dropped sharply as the consequence of the exhaustion of the known deposits. There have been discovered and explored in the 50s the new deposits (Bulqizë and others). The deposits of the chromium ores, which are operated, are located in the zones of the great depths of the erosion cross section of the ultramafic massifs and mountainous relief, which permits to unseal the ore bodies by both the adits and trenches. Thus it is economically feasible to develop even small but adjacent ore depositions.

The negative factor is the poor development of the infrastructure in the mountainous regions. The increasing extraction of the chromium ores stimulates the construction of the new beneficiation plants and of the ferroalloy plants. There have been commissioned till the 1980 the new beneficiation plants in Bulqizë, Martineshti, Kukës, and the plant in Burrel for the production of the ferrochromium. The marketable ores contain 42% of Cr2O3, 13% of FeO, and 22% of Al2O3. All ores, which are extracted, and ferroalloys, which are produced, are exported since 1978 predominantly to the capitalistic countries of the Western Europe (to China till 1978).

The extraction of the iron-nickel-cobalt ores has started in 1958 and till 1982 has grown by 2.5 times. The marketable ores contain 51% of Fe, 0.1% of Ni, and 0.06% of Co. There operate the mines and beneficiation plants in the Guri, Kuchi, Prenyasi, and other places. It is planned to increase the extraction on the account of the construction of the new mining-metallurgical enterprises. Such enterprises are created and have been partially commissioned in Elbasan. There has started the operation in 1980 the 1st phase of the iron-nickel mine in Prenyasi. The iron-nickel ores, which were extracted, have been exported entirely till the middle of the 70s, predominantly to the capitalistic countries of the Western Europe; after the construction of the metallurgical, nickel, and ferroalloy plants, there starts the transition to the export of the coarse metals, and later of the refined metals.

There are developed by the underground method the deposits of the copper ores of the Rubik, Kurbneshi, and Gegyani groups. The copper smelting plants in Rubik and Gegyani produce 8.5-12.5 thousand tonnes of the blister copper, which is almost entirely exported (to China till 1978, later to the capitalistic countries). There have been commissioned in 1980 the plant for the benefication of the copper ore in Rehovë, the copper refining plants in Rubik and Krujë, and also the copper rolling plant in Shkodër; the country proceeds to the export of the refined copper and of the simplest rolled metal products.

There are produced in Albania the phosphate fertilizers at the Laç combined enterprise from the low-grade phosphorites of the Fushë-Barda and Nivike deposits. There work with the local raw materials the cement plants in the Shkodër, Elbasan, Fushë-Krujë, Korçë, and Vlorë cities.

The major sources of the obtainment of the table salt are associated with the Narta and Karavasta Lagoons, which are fenced off the open sea almost completely by the barrier islands. There is planned the operation of the Dumrë and Delvinë deposits of the rock salt, which have been explored.

There are developed by the open pit method the non-metallic building materials, namely, the sands, gravel, crushed gravel.

The training of the personnel. Publishing. Prior to the establishment of the people's government, there were in Albania no national geologists and mining engineers. The training of such specialists was performed since 1946 in the USSR and other socialistic countries; after the establishment of the State University in 1957 in Tirana, the training was performed at its geological department, where are performed also the researches in the field of the geology and mining craft.