Akchatau mining-beneficiation combine

AKCHATAU MINING-BENEFICIATION COMBINE (RU: Акчатауский горно-обогатительный комбинат) is the mining enterprise for the extraction and benefication of the rare metallic and complex metallic ores of the Akchatau, Karaobin, Akzhal and Kairakty deposits of the Dzhezkazgan province of the Kazakh SSR. It has been created in 1958. There are included in the combine the 2 mines (South-Eastern, and named after Jambul) and 2 open pits (Akzhal and Kairakty) with the beneficiation plants. The main industrial centre is the Akchatau settlement of the urban type (since 1944).

The Akchatau rare metallic deposit has been discovered in 1936, the development is performed by the South-Eastern mine since 1941. The deposit is located in the northern part of the Jungar-Balkhash geosyncline; it is the greisen one of the origin, with the molybdenum-tungsten mineralization, it is genetically related to the massif of the leukocratic Permian granites. The ore bodies are located as the separate places of their accumulations, which have their own names: Western, Northern, North-Eastern, Bulgak, South-Western, Central, South-Eastern, Aksai. The main reserves are at the South-Eastern and Central places, which are worked out by the South-Eastern mine. The ore bodies (about 300) are in the form of the veins and more complicated depositions with the thickness from the fractions of the metre to the 40 metres. The angle of the dip of the ore depositions is 70-80 degrees at the east. The main ore minerals are the wolframite, scheelite, molybdenite, and pyrite. The deposit is unsealed by the two vertical shafts with the depth of 170 metres and of 240 metres. There are also used the systems of the development with the breaking out of the ore from the sublevel drifts, and the systems of the development with the shrinkage of the ore with the scraper delivery. The transportation of the rock mass is performed in the mine carts by the electrical locomotives.

The Karaobin rare metallic deposit has been discovered in 1946. The mining enterprise (mine) named after Jambul has been created in 1947, and has begun the output of the production in 1950. The deposit is located in the zone of the Shalgiya-Karaobin fault of the West-Balkhash synclinorium; it is formed by the rocks of the Middle and Upper Devonian, of the Lower Carboniferous, as well as by the Upper Devonian porphyries and Permian granites of the Karaobin granite massif, with which the ore formation process is paragenetically associated. The ore bodies are the slightly and steeply dipping depositions, the ore veins and vein-greisen zones, and the stockwork. The strike of the veins and greisen zones is latitudinal, north-western submeridional and north-eastern. The length of the veins along the strike is from 100 to 1000 metres, the average thickness is 0.3-1.5 metres. The vein-greisen zones have the length along the strike from 350 to 800 metres, the thickness from 0.6 to 1.5 metres. The angles of the dip of the veins and zones are 65-87 degrees. The stockwork is represented by the network of the adjacent intersecting tungsten ore veins in the granites of the Central place. The ore deposits are complex. The main ore minerals are: the wolframite, molybdenite, cassiterite, bismuthinite. The deposit is unsealed by the two vertical shafts with the depth of 240 and 300 metres. There is used the system of the shrinkage of the ore with the cameras of the ore screening; there is being introduced the progressive design of the bottom of the unit with the usage of the vibrating hatches.

The Akzhal polymetallic deposit has been discovered in 1886, and the ore, which was extracted by the open pit method, was directed to the Stefanovsky plant, which is located in the Kyzyl-Espe, at the 80 kilometres from the Balkhash lake to the north-west. The detailed geological-explorative works have been performed in 1935-68. The deposit is confined to the zone of the crushing in the core of the anticline, which is formed by the Frasnian sandstones and by the limestones of the Famennian and Tournaisian ages. The strike of the zone of the crushing is latitudinal, the dip is steep (southern) and vertical, the dip at the depth is opposite (northern), steep. The deposit is divided at the surface into the 3 places: Western, Central and Eastern. The ore zone is traced along the strike for 4,300 metres, its thickness oscillates from the few metres to 40-50 metres and more. The ore bodies are the tabular depositions, saddle-like, the ore veins in the fractures of the cleavage and rupture, the ore stockworks, the interspersed ores. The main ore minerals are the galena and sphalerite; the minor ones are the pyrite, chalcopyrite, fahlore, pyrrhotite, and others. There is planned the underground development of the reserves, which are located below the designed outline of the open pit.

The Kairakty barite-polymetallic deposit is located within the Jaman-Sarysuy anticlinorium, in the southern edge of the Uspensk zone of the crumpling. The deposit is known since the 70s of the 19th century, the exploration was performed periodically in 1919-54, the deposit is developed by the open pit since 1944. The ore field is formed by the sandstones, carbonaceous schists, limestones, conglomerates, siltstones of the lower and upper Famennian, lower Tournaisian. There are isolated 3 major ore bodies: Small, Main and number 5. There are isolated in the Small ore body (Upper Famennian) the two barite metasomatic bodies (south-western and north-eastern) with the steep angles of the dip. The Main ore body is represented by the mineralized barite metasomatic formation, which is located in the zone of the disruption along the contact of the carbonaceous schists and the sedimentary breccias of the sandstones. The ore body has the arcuate shape in the horizontal plane projection, which is repeating the synclinal structure; the dip and strike are analogous to the Small ore body. The ore body number 5 (lower Famennian) reaches the lenght of 100 metres, the greatest thickness is 14 metres. The main ore minerals are the barite, galena, sphalerite.

There is used at the open pit mining works the transport system of the development with the hauling of the overburden to the external dumps of the waste rocks. The ores, which are extracted at the combine, are coming to the beneficiation plants, where there are used the jigging, extraction, hydroclassification, concentration on the tables, electromagnetic separation and flotation. The ores are also processed at the flotation factories according to the cyanide less technology according to the scheme of the collective-selective flotation. The combine produces the concentrates: the tungsten, molybdenum, bismuth, tin, lead, zinc, and barite ones.