Aerology

AEROLOGY for the mining craft (from the Greek words "aer" (air) and "logos" (word, teaching) * EN: mining aerology; DE: Aerologie im Bergbau; FR: aerologie des mines; ES: aerologia de minas; RU: аэрология) is the branch of the mining science, which is studying the properties of the atmosphere within the mines and quarries, the laws of the motion of the air, of the transfer of the gaseous impurities, dust and heat within the mine workings, internal space of the open pit mine, and massif of the rocks, which is adjacent to them. It is based on the laws of the general aerodynamics and thermodynamics; it uses the methods for the researches, meteorological observations of the state of the atmosphere, and weather forecasts, which are used for these sciences.

The mine aerology develops the scientific foundations for the ventilation within the mines. The systematized facts on the mine aerology have been reported for the first time within the work by M.V.Lomonosov "On the free motion of the air, which has been observed within the mines" (1745). Its rapid development has started during the end of the 19th - start of the 20th centuries within the countries of Europe, including within Russia. The founder of the fatherland school of the mine aerology is A.A.Skochinsky. The major divisions of the mine aerology are the mine atmosphere, the mine aerodynamics, the mine gas dynamics, the dynamics of the mine aerosols, the mine thermodynamics.

The main problems of this scientific discipline are the decreasing of the aerodynamic resistance within the mine workings, the perfecting of the methods for the computation for the mine ventilation networks, the improvement of the effectiveness of the degassing within the mines, the development of the effective methods and means for the thermal conditioning of the mine air, the development of the scientifically substantiated methods for the computation of the quantity of the air for the ventilation within the mines, the creation of the scientific foundations for the automatized control of the ventilation within the mines, the improvement of the reliability of the mine ventilation systems.

The mine aerodynamics studies the aerodynamic resistance within the mine workings and their systems, and the distribution of the air flows within the network of the mine workings, develops the aerodynamic foundations for the control of the ventilation within the mines, the methods for the decreasing of the aerodynamic resistance within the mine workings, and the methods for the computation of the energy, which is necessary for the movement of the air within the mine.

The gas dynamics considers: the laws of the movement of the gaseous impurities by the air flows within the mine workings, and of the gases within the massif of the rocks, which is adjacent to the mine workings, including the filtering of the gases within the massif of the rocks, the diffusion of the light (heavy) gases within the air flow of the mine workings; the transient gas dynamic processes within the mine workings, which are caused by the sharp adjustment of the flow of the air. It develops the scientific foundations for the computation of the quantity of the air for the ventilation within the mines, the scientific foundations for the degassing of the mines, for the fight against the sudden outbursts, the gas dynamic foundations for the control of the ventilation within the mines. The dynamics of the mine aerosols studies the laws of the movement of the solid and liquid mechanical impurities by the air flows within the mine workings. It has got the major development for the case of the transfer of the mine dust. It develops the scientific foundations for the dedusting ventilation within the mine workings. The mine thermodynamics considers the processes of the heat exchange between the air flows within the mine workings, the surrounding massif of the rocks, and the sources of the heat within the mine workings. It develops the methods for the forecasting of the thermal conditions within the mine workings, the methods and means for the thermal conditioning of the mine air.

The aerology of the open pit mines develops the scientific foundations for the forecasting of the atmospheric conditions, and for the airing within the open pit mining developments. The first researches on the aerology of the open pit mines belong to the 50-ies of the 20th century; the aerology of the open pit mines has formed itself within the USSR as the scientific discipline during the start of the 70-ies of the 20th century. The major divisions of the aerology of the open pit mines are: the atmosphere and micro-climate within the open pit mines, the aerodynamics, the thermodynamics, the gas-dust dynamics of the atmosphere within the open pit mines.

The division of the aerology on the atmosphere and micro-climate within the open pit mines considers the composition of the atmosphere within the open pit mines, the sources of its pollution, the climate within the region of the placement of the open pit mine, and the specific changes of the characteristics of this climate (speeds, temperatures, humidities). The aerodynamics of the atmosphere within the open pit mines studies the process of the motion of the air within the internal space of the open pit mine, its turbulent characteristics, the schemes of the motion, and together with the thermal and gas-dust dynamics of the open pit mines studies the theoretical foundations for the airing within the open pit mines. It determines the structure and regularities of the change of the speed of the motion of the air flows within the open pit mine, depending on the spatial coordinates and the geometry of the open pit mine.

The aerodynamics of the atmosphere within the open pit mines is sub-divided into the aerodynamics of the natural airing and artificial ventilation within the open pit mines. The first one studies the process of the motion of the air within the open pit mine on the account of the wind within the near-ground layer of the atmosphere, or on the account of the thermal forces, estimating the effectiveness of the natural airing within the open pit mine.

The aerodynamics of the artificial ventilation within the open pit mines considers the issues of the development of the air jets, which are created by the ventilation installations within the open pit mine, within the internal space of the open pit mine. Its purpose is the determination of the locations for the placement and of the schemes for the cooperation of the installations, which are ensuring the effective general or local ventilation within the open pit mine. The thermodynamics of the atmosphere within the open pit mines studies the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere, the sources of the heat within the open pit mines, the thermal forces within the atmosphere within the open pit mines, and their influence onto the motion of the air within the internal space of the open pit mine. There are considered within this division of the aerology the regularities of the change of the temperature of the air within the internal space of the open pit mine, the influence of the temperature stratification of the atmosphere within the open pit mine onto the large-scale and pulsating motions of this atmosphere, the dispersion and outflow of the harmful impurities, the development of the fogs. The thermodynamic characteristics of the atmosphere within the open pit mines must be taken into account during the estimation of the possibilities for their natural airing, especially during the periods of the calm weather. The gas-dust dynamics considers the issues of the motion of the harmful impurities (gases, dust) within the atmosphere within the open pit mines and outside of its limits, the regularities of the distribution and the parameters of the gas-dust flows, which form themselves within the open pit mine as the result of the technological and natural processes, the methods for the active impact onto the sources of the pollution, the theoretical foundations for the development of the complex of the measures for the normalization of the composition of the air within the open pit mines, and the theoretical foundations for the determination of the sizes of the sanitary-protective zones.

The major method of the aerology for the research is the theoretical analysis together with the experimental study and field observations.