Aerial photographic topographic survey
AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHIC TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY (EN: aerophototopography, aerial phototopography; DE: Aerophototopographie, fototopographische Luftaufnahme; FR: aerophototopographie, aerocartographie; ES: fotogrametria aerea; RU: аэрофототопографическая съемка) is the method for the creation of the topographic plans and maps, and for the obtainment of the numerical characteristics of the terrain (profiles, digital models, and so on) with the usage of the aerial photographs.
The aerial photographic topographic survey includes the aerial photographic survey, field topographic geodesic works, and cameral photogrammetric works. The field topographic geodesic works consist of the determination of the coordinates of the individual points of the terrain on the aerial photographs (control points), and of the interpretation of the aerial photographs. They thicken the sparse network of the geodesic control points, which has been obtained, with the photogrammetric methods: the analytical one (with the usage of the stereo-comparators and computers), or using the construction of the networks on the universal stereophotogrammetric instruments. During this process, they provide each stereo pair of the aerial photographs with four (or more) control points (of the thickening). The contour part of the topographic map (plan) is compiled by the way of the crafting of the photographic plan, either on the basis of the interpretation, or on the basis of the survey of the contours according to the model of the terrain. They conduct the survey of the relief mainly according to the model, which has been restored with the help of the stereo-photographic instrument, but within the forested regions with the methods of the ground survey.
The construction of the model of the terrain according to the stereo pair is conducted by the way of the restoration of the bundles of the projecting rays and of their mutual orientation; there are performed according to the control points the orientation and the bringing to the scale of the processing. Besides the topographic map (plan), there may be obtained the digital models, profiles, and so on.
The aerial photographic topographic survey is the major method for the mapping of the territory at the various scales. Within the geology and mining craft, the materials of the aerial photographic topographic survey are widely used for the creation of the topographic foundation for the geological maps, for the positioning of the points for the mining-geological objects, for the determination of the resources of the useful minerals, and so on.
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