ACTIVE CARBON, ACTIVATED CARBON (EN: activated coal; DE: Aktivkohle; FR: charbon actif; ES: carbon activado; RU: активный уголь) is the porous carbon substance, having the high adsorption properties and hydrophobicity. The ability of the activated carbon to intake (adsorb) the gases, vapours and dissolved substances is caused by its developed feathery surface with the large number of the so-called active sites.
They produce the active carbons by the carbonization and subsequent activation of the organic substances of the vegetable origin (peat, lignite, wood, wastes of the paper production, and others). One of the most promising types of the raw materials for the production of the active carbon is peat and the residues of its chemical processing. The usage of the peat raw material permits to produce the high quality sorbents, as well as the granular active carbons without the introduction of the costly binders, which are, as a rule, the carcinogenic substances. They perform the activation by the two main methods: by the oxidation in the medium of the gas or steam, by the processing by the chemical reagents (for example, by the zinc chloride, by the potassium sulfide). The highly developed microporous structure and the active sites are created during the process of the activation.
They use the active carbons in the recuperation and adsorption installations (during the recuperation of the organic solvents, the separation of the gas mixtures, and others), in the means of the anti-gas protection, as well as in the gas chromatography, medicine, and others. There are produced the active carbons: the lightening ones for the bleaching of the solutions (in the USSR, the marks A, B, MD, OS, AGS-4); the recuperative ones for the capturing and returning to the production of the vapours of the volatile solvents (AR-3, ART, ART-2, SKT-3); the gas ones for the adsorption of the gases, vapours and dissolved substances, the molecules of which are near by the size to the molecules of the vaporous substances (AG-2, SKT, SKT-1A, KAD-iodic, BAU, and others).
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