Achisay polymetallic combined enterprise
ACHISAY POLYMETALLIC COMBINED ENTERPRISE named after the 60th anniversary of the October Revolution (RU: Ачисайский полиметаллический комбинат) is the mining-ore enterprise for the extraction and beneficiation of the polymetallic ores at the south of the Shymkent province of the Kazakh SSR. It is situated within the foothills of the Karatau ridge. It has been commissioned during the 1927 on the base of the Achisay (Turlan) deposit of the lead-zinc ores, which is known since the 17th century; during the 1941, there has been started the development of the Mirgalimsai deposit, which has become the major ore base of the Achisay polymetallic combined enterprise.
The major industrial centres are the Kentau city and Achisay settlement. It includes the mines, beneficiation plants, metallurgical and other facilities. The mineralization of the Mirgalimsai deposit is confined to the anticlinal zone of the carbonatic rocks of the Famennian stage of the Devonian. The shape of the ore bodies is tabular, the deposit is broken by the tectonic disturbances of the great amplitude into the 9 individual geological blocks. The angle of the dip of the ore bodies is from 5-10 to 70-80 degrees. The depth of the embedment is up to 900 metres. The excavation thickness is 2-14 metres. The country rocks are the dolomites, dolomitic (less often marly) limestones. The main ore minerals are the galena, pyrite, sphalerite, barite. The major components of the ores are the lead, barium, and zinc.
The deposit is characterized by the abundant water inflows. The average annual water inflow is 10-12 thousand cubic metres per hour, the maximum during the freshet period is 23 thousand cubic metres per hour. During the year, 100-110 million cubic metres of water is pumped out by the underground pump stations. The water, which is taken from the mines, is used for the water supply of the Kentau city and for the irrigation of the agricultural lands. The deposit is being developed by the "Verkhnij" (means "Upper") ("Mirgalimsai") and "Glubokij" (means "Deep") mines. Since the 1977, there are widely used the variants of the chamber systems of development with the filling of the goaf space with the self-hardening mixtures (non-deslimed tailings of beneficiation, cement and water). The transportation of the filling is self-flowing. The extraction of the ore is up to 90%, the dilution is 10-15%. The shares of the individual systems of development (1980, %) are: chamber-and-pillar is 30.8, delivery of the ore by the force of the explosion is 37.3, with the filling of the goaf space is 20.4, with the collapse of the overlying rocks is 6.3, secondary working (the extraction of the interchamber and ceiling virgin ores) is 5.2. There is used during the retreat mining and mining-preparatory works the self-propelled diesel equipment, namely, the dump trucks (25 tonnes), drill carriages, bucket loaders, and also electrical loading machines. The delivery of the equipment into the "Verkhnij" mine is performed with the self-propelled method through the transport mine working, which has been headed specially for this purpose, and into the "Glubokij" mine through the cargo compartment of the vertical shaft with the help of the 45-tonne cargo winch. More than 84% of the ore is extracted by the self-propelled equipment. The isolation of the ore bodies of the deposit has predetermined the usage of the rapid methods of heading of the workings for their unsealing.
There has been created at the Achisay polymetallic combined enterprise the All-Union school of the rapid headings (1965). The beneficiation plants of the Achisay polymetallic combined enterprise have mastered the comprehensive usage of the local and delivered ores. There has been implemented at the mines and beneficiation plants the wide automation, and the automated system for the control of the technological processes. There are conducted the works for the elimination of the tailing dumps with the recycling of the tailings for the composition of the self-hardening mixtures for the filling of the goaf space. The Achisay polymetallic combined enterprise has been awarded with the Order of the October Revolution (1971). During the 1977, the combined enterprise has been named after the 60th anniversary of the October Revolution.
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